The healing of chronic wounds requires intensive medical intervention at huge healthcare costs. Dressing materials should consider the multifactorial nature of these wounds comprising deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes and high bacterial load. In this work, multifunctional hydrogels for chronic wound application were produced by enzymatic cross- linking of thiolated chitosan and gallic acid. The hydrogels combine several beneficial to wound healing properties, controlling the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, oxidative stress, and bacterial contamination. In vitro studies revealed above 90% antioxidant activity, and MPO and collagenase inhibition by up to 98 and 23%, respectively. Ex vivo studies with venous leg ulcer exudates confirmed the inhibitory capacity of the dressings against MPO and MMPs. Additionally, the hydrogels reduced the population of the most frequently encountered in nonhealing wounds bacterial strains. The stable at physiological conditions and resistant to lysozyme degradation hydrogels showed high biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts
Francesko, A.; Torrent, J.; Torrent-Burgués, J.; Carrion-Fite, F.J.; Macedo, M.M.; Tzanov, T.; Heinze, T. Biomacromolecules Vol. 15, num. 4, p. 1365-1374 DOI: 10.1021/bm4018947 Data de publicació: 2014-03-08 Article en revista
Bacterial-mediated diseases are a major healthcare concern worldwide due to the rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One strategy to manage the bacterial infections while avoiding the emergence of resistant strains implies specific targeting and disruption of bacteria membranes. This work evaluates the potential of nanostructured biopolymer derivatives, nanocapsules (NCs), to disrupt the bacteria cell walls and effectively kill planktonic microorganisms. Two biopolymers, chitosan and cellulose, were chemically modified to synthesize derivatives with improved cationic character (thiolated chitosan and aminocellulose) prior to their processing into nanocapsules via a one-step sonochemical process. The interactions of NCs, displaying an average size of around 250 nm, with bacteria membrane were evaluated using two membrane models: Langmuir monolayers and liposome bilayers composed of a l-a-phosphatidylglycerol phospholipid extracted from Escherichia coli. NCs possessed improved membrane disturbing capacity in comparison to the nonprocessed biopolymer derivatives, by drastically increasing the monolayer fluidity and inducing more than 50% leakage of a dye inserted in the bilayered liposomes. In addition, membrane disturbance was directly proportional to the NCs cationic charge. Whereas evidence showed that thiolated chitosan and aminocellulose interacted with the bacteria membrane through a “carpet model”, the NCs were found to induce larger surface defects and high local perturbance through a “detergent model”. Importantly, the degree of disruption caused by the biopolymer derivatives and NCs correlated well with the antimicrobial capacity against Escherichia coli, selectively killing bacteria cells without imparting toxicity to human fibroblasts.