'EnReMilk will achieve significant water and energy savings in representative dairy case studies, mozzarella and milk powder production, across the supply chain. The dairy industry is an important food industry sector with sales of €124.3 billion and added value of €17.4 billion p.a. It is a high energy and water consumer, both overall and per unit production: up to 6.47 MWh (5.55 MWhth and 0.92 MWhel) and 60 m3 of water per tonne processed milk. 98 % of the fresh water used is of drinking water quality with 80% of energy consumed in process heating, pasteurisation, sterilisation, drying and cleaning operations. During EnReMilk, energy savings of at least 20% and water savings of at least 30% will be achieved in case studies (3 months production), replicable in both SME and larger dairies. These savings will be validated against a consumption baseline of existing operation, being validated in model simulations and in physical trials. Emerging and novel engineering technologies will be optimised and implemented in key dairy unit operations to provide significant and simultaneous saving of water and energy, while ensuring food quality and safety. It will: (i) identify and monitor water and energy consumption patterns of along the entire supply chain, (ii) model and simulate to evaluate savings potential of a vast array of technological scenarios, (iii) optimise selected technologies in case studies with highest water and energy saving potential, (iv) optimise resource supply and use strategies, and (v) ensure benefits for food producers and equipment manufacturers, while reconciling sustainability imperatives. It will ensure a smooth translation into practical implementation, providing an innovation-driven increase in the competitiveness of the EU dairy sector. EnReMilk will ensure that engineering innovations are verified as environmentally sustainable, economically viable and socially responsible, and that food quality and safety is not compromised.'
'More than water scarcity, diseases and civil wars, Africa is also the least wealthy continent, in terms of economic and financial resources. These combined and tightly linked problems have led to a restricted range of choices, affordable for African countries, to deal particularly with the water issue, as a major topic. Polluted water treatment before use has been their almost unique solution to deal with a growing water scarcity. The treatment of water and elimination of pollutants, mainly pathogenic organisms, xenobiotics and heavy metals, although itself presents significant challenges, is crucial for human health and environmental considerations. However, most regions in developing countries cannot afford the costs of advanced and specialized systems.
Numerous water cleaning methods are based in natural, plants or micro-organisms, biochemical processes. Biotechnology is a useful tool that is delivering improved products and process for environmental sustainability, and promises a range of benefits to manage the industrial WW economically and effectively around the world. Some biotechnological techniques are quite sophisticated but others are simple, cost effective and adapted to local conditions and resources of developing countries.
These natural biological treatment systems include lagooning, land treatment, phytodepuration, or constructed wetlands systems. They can be applied as secondary or tertiary purification treatment, allowing the removal of pathogenic microorganisms and the degradation of the organic pollutants, so that waste water can be recycled for irrigation and domestic use and hence reduce the pressure on the hydric resources. Other biotechnological techniques to be taken into account within this proposal are biofiltration, membrane bioreactors and algae and other aquatic crops’ application for wastewater purification.'