This paper aims to present a novel methodology that permits to determine the optimal retrofitting actions to be implemented in a given building of the tertiary sector, based on its architectonic characteristics (e.g. volume, useful area, orientation, walls thermal transmittance, etc.), climatic conditions (i.e. solar radiation, temperature) and operation profiles. The proposed methodology has been developed by the technological centers "Eurecat" and "Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic", in the framework of two national research projects.
The proposed methodology is based on the combination of mathematical models that characterize the annual energy demand vectors of a given building based on its characteristics, and the use of an evolutionary-based optimization algorithms to evaluate the different (available) retrofitting actions for both the passive and active part of the building, with objective to determine the optimal ones in terms of energy efficiency, investment and maintenance cost and GHG emissions reduction.
The proposed methodology has been developed as a beta software tool for windows-based operating systems, which through a simplified graphic user interface permits the customization of the databased, the configuration of the building's characteristics, as well as the evaluation and optimization of different retrofitting actions in both the passive and active parts of a given building. Finally, it presents graphically and numerically the obtained results.
For complex geometries, the definition of the subsystems is not a straightforward task. We present here a subsystem identification method based on the direct transfer matrix, which represents the first-order paths. The key ingredient is a cluster analysis of the rows of the powers of the transfer matrix. These powers represent high-order paths in the system and are more affected than low-order paths by damping.
Once subsystems are identified, the proposed approach also provides a quantification of the degree of coupling between subsystems. This information is relevant to decide whether a subsystem may be analysed in a computer model or measured in the laboratory independently of the rest or subsystems or not. The two features (subsystem identification and quantification of the degree of coupling) are illustrated by means of numerical examples: plates coupled by means of springs and rooms connected by means of a cavity.
In this paper a short introduction of human-computer interaction is presented taking into
account the relationship between interaction design and universal design. From the conference
Interaccion 2015, some selected papers in the field of interaction design for healthcare are presented,
Methods, tools, interface design, user evaluation are considered with the aim to improve the quality of
life of citizens using technology.
Bueno, I.; España, E.; Gene, A.; Ondategui-Parra, JC; Zapata, C. Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences Vol. 11, num. 2, p. 1-15 DOI: 10.1142/S1793545818500013 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-02 Artículo de revista
The aim of this paper was to examine the distribution of macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disc parameters of myopic and hyperopic eyes in comparison with emmetropic control eyes and to investigate their variation according to axial length (AL) and spherical equivalent (SE) in healthy children. Methods: This study included 293 pairs of eyes of 293 children (145 boys and 148 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 17 years. Subjects were divided according to SE in control (emmetropia, 99 children), myopia (100 children) and hyperopia (94 children) groups and according to axial AL in 68 short ((Formula presented.)22.00(Formula presented.)mm, 68), medium (from (Formula presented.)22.00(Formula presented.)mm to 25.00(Formula presented.)mm, 189) and long eyes ((Formula presented.)25.00(Formula presented.)mm, 36). Macular parameters, RNFL thickness and optic disc morphology were assessed by the CirrusTM HD-OCT. AL was measured using the IOL-Master system. Littmann’s formula was used for calculating the corrected AL-related ocular magnification. Results: Mean age ((Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)SD) was 10.84(Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)3.05 years; mean ((Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)SD) SE was (Formula presented.)0.14(Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)0.51 D (range from (Formula presented.)8.75 to (Formula presented.)8.25 D) and mean AL ((Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)SD) was 23.12(Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)(Formula presented.)1.49. Average RNFL thickness, average macular thickness and macular volume decreased as AL and myopia increased. No correlations between AL/SE and optic disc parameters were found after correcting for magnification effect. Conclusions: AL and refractive error affect measurements of macular and RNFL thickness in healthy children. To make a correct interpretation of OCT measurements, ocular magnification effect should be taken into account by clinicians or OCT manufacturers.
This volume addresses challenges and solutions in transport and mobility of people and goods with respect to environment, safety, security and socio–economics issues, exploring advanced computational research work and the latest innovations in transport. This book brings together lectures presented at the ECCOMAS Thematic CM3 Conference on Transport held in Jyväskylä, Finland, 25-27 May 2015. It is divided into three parts, I: Reviews and Perspective, II: Computational Methods and Models and III: Translational Research. Each of these parts consists of contributions that present solutions to many transport challenges in this complex, rapidly changing subject. The work contains the latest achievements of European research and technological developments needed for the next decade through computational results of scientific and technical experts who have made essential contributions in transport efficiency in Europe. The material presented here is the state of the art in Transport Modeling, Simulation and Optimization in the fields of Aeronautics, Automotive, Logistics, Maritime and Rails. Furthermore, this volume also answers the question how to apply Computational Research in Transport in order to provide innovative solutions to Green Transportation challenges of identified in the ambitious Horizon 2020 program. This book is intended for students, researchers, engineers and practitioners that are computationally involved in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in the areas of optimal use of road, traffic and travel data, traffic and freight management ITS services, road safety and security, sea traffic management, etc.
Raboshchuk, G.; Nadeu, C.; Vidiella, S.; Ros, O.; Muñoz, B.; Riverola , A. Biomedical signal processing and control Vol. 39, p. 390-395 DOI: 10.1016/j.bspc.2017.07.024 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
The sounds occurring in the noisy acoustical environment of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are thought to affect the growth and neurodevelopment of preterm infants. Automatic sound detection in a NICU is a novel and challenging problem, and it is an essential step in the investigation of how preterm infants react to auditory stimuli of the NICU environment. In this paper, we present our work on an automatic system for detection of vocalization sounds, which are extensively present in NICUs. The proposed system reduces the presence of irrelevant sounds prior to detection. Several pre-processing techniques are compared, which are based on either spectral subtraction or non-negative matrix factorization, or a combination of both. The vocalization sounds are detected from the enhanced audio signal using either generative or discriminative classification models. An audio database acquired in a real-world NICU environment is used to assess the performance of the detection system in terms of frame-level missing and false alarm rates. The inclusion of the enhancement pre-processing step leads to up to 17.54% relative improvement over the baseline.
We study the problem of the hydrogen atom interacting with a circularly polarized microwave field, and more specifically, we focus on the so called to and fro motion, that is, the erratic trajectories described by the electron making several large distance excursions and close passages to the nucleus. The skeleton of such trajectories is based on the so called ejection-collision orbits (ECO), that is, orbits ejected from the nucleus, describing several far/close passages to the origin and finally colliding with it. The computation and continuation of families of ECO, as well as their bifurcations is analysed, and finally the consequences of such orbits to explain to and from motion as well as ionization of an electron by the external field are also described.
This paper proposes an analytical solution of the Inverse Kinematics (IK) problem at dead point configurations for any planar one degree of freedom linkage mechanism, with regard to the continuity C n of the motion law. The systems analyzed are those whose elements are linked with lower pairs and do not present redundancies. The study aims to provide the user with some rules to facilitate the design of feasible motion profiles to be reproduced by conventional electrical actuators at these configurations. During the last decades, sev- eral methods and techniques have been developed to study this specific configuration. However, these techniques are mainly focused on solving numerically the IK indetermi- nacy, rather than analyzing the motion laws that the mechanisms are able to perform at these particular configurations. The analysis presented in this paper has been carried out differentiating and applying l’Hôpital’s rule to the system of constraint equations / ð q Þ of the mechanism. The study also considers the feasibility of the time-domain profiles to be reproduced with conventional electrical actuators (i.e. AC/DC motors, linear actuators, etc.). To show the usefulness and effectiveness of the method, the development includes the analytical application and numerical simulations for two common one degree of free- dom systems: a slider-crank and a four linkage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results are presented on a four linkage mechanism test bed.
Fuzzy subgroups and T-vague groups are interesting fuzzy algebraic structures that have been widely studied. While fuzzy subgroups fuzzify the concept of crisp subgroup, T-vague groups can be identified with quotient groups of a group by a normal fuzzy subgroup and there is a close relation between both structures and T-indistinguishability operators (fuzzy equivalence relations).
In this paper the functions that aggregate fuzzy subgroups and T-vague groups will be studied. The functions aggregating T-indistinguishability operators have been characterized  and the main result of this paper is that the functions aggregating T-indistinguishability operators coincide with the ones that aggregate fuzzy subgroups and T-vague groups. In particular, quasi-arithmetic means and some OWA operators aggregate them if the t-norm is continuous Archimedean.
The Internet of Things (IoT) marks a phase transition in the evolution of the Internet, distinguished by a massive connectivity and the interaction with the physical world. The organic evolution of IoT requires the consideration of three dimensions: scale, organization, and context. These dimensions are particularly relevant in Ultra Large Scale Systems (ULSS), of which autonomous vehicles is a prime example. Fog Computing is well positioned to support contextual awareness and communication, critical for ULSS. The design and orchestration of ULSS require fresh approaches, new organizing principles. A recent paper proposed Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB), an architecture that builds on established concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition and organization. HEB’s local rules induce emergent behaviors, i.e., useful behaviors not explicitly programmed. In this chapter we take a first step to validate HEB concepts through the study of two basic self-driven car “primitives”: exiting a platoon formation, and maneuvering in anticipation of obstacles beyond the range of on-board sensors. Fog nodes provide the critical contextual information required.