Roca, D.; Lloberas-Valls, O.; Cante, J.C.; Oliver, J. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 330, p. 415-446 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.10.025 Fecha de publicación: 2018-03 Artículo de revista
A framework, based on an extended Hill–Mandel principle accounting for inertial effects (Multiscale Virtual Work principle), is developed for application to acoustic problems in the context of metamaterials modelling. The classical restrictions in the mean values of the micro-displacement fluctuations and their gradients are then accounted for in a saddle-point formulation of that variational principle in terms of Lagrange functionals. A physical interpretation of the involved Lagrange multipliers can then be readily obtained.
The framework is specifically tailored for modelling the phenomena involved in Locally Resonant Acoustic Metamaterials (LRAM). In this view, several additional hypotheses based on scale separation are used to split the fully coupled micro-macro set of equations into a quasi-static and an inertial system. These are then solved by considering a projection of the microscale equations into their natural modes, which allows for a low-cost computational treatment of the multiscale problem. On this basis, the issue of numerically capturing the local resonance phenomena in a FE
context is addressed. Objectivity of the obtained results in terms of the macroscopic Finite Element (FE) discretization is checked as well as accuracy of the homogenization procedure by comparing with direct numerical simulations (DNS). The appearance of local resonance band-gaps is then modelled for a homogeneous 2D problem and its extension to multi-layered macroscopic material is presented as an initial attempt towards acoustic metamaterial design for tailored band-gap attenuation.
In this paper we propose a Finite Element model for analyzing closed membranes (“bags”) interacting with internal and external (surrounding) fluids. The approach is based on embedding a Lagrangian monolithic model describing the membrane containing an internal fluid into an Eulerian external fluid model. The combination of kinematic frameworks allows us to accurately track the location of the membrane and naturally represent flow variables discontinuities across it. In order to obtain stable coupling for membrane materials with low density, a slight fluid compressibility is assumed. The coupling between the membrane and the internal fluid is automatically accounted for by a monolithic set-up. The filled membrane and the external fluid are coupled in a Dirichlet–Neumann fashion. The model is validated in several numerical examples and its potential application to a civil engineering problem of coast protection via water-filled bag reefs is shown.
Design optimization and uncertainty quantification, among other applications of industrial interest, require fast or multiple queries of some parametric model. The Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) provides a separable solution, a computational vademecum explicitly dependent on the parameters, efficiently computed with a greedy algorithm combined with an alternated directions scheme and compactly stored. This strategy has been successfully employed in many problems in computational mechanics. The application to problems with saddle point structure raises some difficulties requiring further attention. This article proposes a PGD formulation of the Stokes problem. Various possibilities of the separated forms of the PGD solutions are discussed and analyzed, selecting the more viable option. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in numerical examples for both Stokes and Brinkman models.
Franci, A.; Oñate, E.; Carbonell, J.M.; Chiumenti, M. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 325, p. 711-732 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2017.07.028 Fecha de publicación: 2017-10 Artículo de revista
The aim of this paper is to present a Lagrangian formulation for thermo-coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems and to show its applicability to the simulation of hypothetical scenarios of a nuclear core melt accident. During this emergency situation, an extremely hot and radioactive lava-like material, the corium, is generated by the melting of the fuel assembly. The corium may induce collapse of the nuclear reactor devices and, in the worst case, breach the reactor containment and escape into the environment. This work shows the capabilities of the proposed formulation to reproduce the structural failure mechanisms induced by the corium that may occur during a meltdown scenario. For this purpose, a monolithic method for FSI problems, the so-called Unified formulation, is here enhanced in order to account for the thermal field and to model phase change phenomena with the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). Several numerical examples are presented. First, the convergence of the thermo-coupled method and phase change algorithm is shown for two academic problems. Then, two complex simulations of hypothetical nuclear meltdown situations are studied in 2D as in 3D.
In this work we present a general error estimator for the finite element solution of solid mechanics problems based on the Variational Multiscale method. The main idea is to consider a rich model for the subgrid scales as an error estimator. The subscales are considered to belong to a space orthogonal to the finite element space (Orthogonal Subgrid Scales) and we take into account their contribution both in the element interiors and on the element boundaries (Subscales on the Element Boundaries). A simple analysis shows that the upper bound for the obtained error estimator is sharper than in other error estimators based on the Variational Multiscale Method. Numerical examples show that the proposed error estimator is an accurate approximation for the energy norm error and can be used both in simple linear constitutive models and in more complex non-linear cases.
This work is devoted to the design of interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (dG) schemes that preserve maximum principles at the discrete level for the steady transport and convection–diffusion problems and the respective transient problems with implicit time integration. Monotonic schemes that combine explicit time stepping with dG space discretization are very common, but the design of such schemes for implicit time stepping is rare, and it had only been attained so far for 1D problems. The proposed scheme is based on a piecewise linear dG discretization supplemented with an artificial diffusion that linearly depends on a shock detector that identifies the troublesome areas. In order to define the new shock detector, we have introduced the concept of discrete local extrema. The diffusion operator is a graph-Laplacian, instead of the more common finite element discretization of the Laplacian operator, which is essential to keep monotonicity on general meshes and in multi-dimension. The resulting nonlinear stabilization is non-smooth and nonlinear solvers can fail to converge. As a result, we propose a smoothed (twice differentiable) version of the nonlinear stabilization, which allows us to use Newton with line search nonlinear solvers and dramatically improve nonlinear convergence. A theoretical numerical analysis of the proposed schemes shows that they satisfy the desired monotonicity properties. Further, the resulting operator is Lipschitz continuous and there exists at least one solution of the discrete problem, even in the non-smooth version. We provide a set of numerical results to support our findings.
Petracca, M.; Pelà, L.; Rossi, R.; Oller, S.; Camata, G.; Spacone, E. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 315, p. 273-301 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.10.046 Fecha de publicación: 2017-03 Artículo de revista
This work presents a multiscale method based on computational homogenization for the analysis of general heterogeneous thick shell structures, with special focus on periodic brick-masonry walls. The proposed method is designed for the analysis of shells whose micro-structure is heterogeneous in the in-plane directions, but initially homogeneous in the shell-thickness direction, a structural topology that can be found in single-leaf brick masonry walls. Under this assumption, this work proposes an efficient homogenization scheme where both the macro-scale and the micro-scale are described by the same shell theory. The proposed method is then applied to the analysis of out-of-plane loaded brick-masonry walls, and compared to experimental and micro-modeling results.
Ryzhakov, P.; Marti, J.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, E. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 315, p. 1080-1097 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.12.003 Fecha de publicación: 2017-03 Artículo de revista
We propose here a displacement-based updated Lagrangian fluid model developed to facilitate a monolithic coupling with a wide range of structural elements described in terms of displacements. The novelty of the model consists in the use of the explicit streamline integration for predicting the end-of-step configuration of the fluid domain. It is shown that this prediction considerably alleviates the time step size restrictions faced by the former Lagrangian models due to the possibility of an element inversion within one time step. The method is validated and compared with conventional approaches using three numerical examples. Time step size and corresponding Courant numbers leading to optimal behavior in terms of computational efficiency are identified.
Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Gimenez, J.; Marti, J.; Nigro, N. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 313, p. 535-559 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.09.048 Fecha de publicación: 2017-01 Artículo de revista
This paper presents a finite element that incorporates weak, strong and both weak plus strong discontinuities with linear interpolations of the unknown jumps for the modeling of internal interfaces. The new enriched space is built by subdividing each triangular or tetrahedral element in several standard linear sub-elements. The new degrees of freedom coming from the assembly of the sub-elements can be eliminated by static condensation at the element level, resulting in two main advantages: first, an elemental enrichment instead of a nodal one, which presents an important reduction of the computing time when the internal interface is moving all around the domain and second, an efficient implementation involving minor modifications allowing to reuse existing finite element codes. The equations for the internal interface are constructed by imposing the local equilibrium between the stresses in the bulk of the element and the tractions driving the cohesive law, with the proper equilibrium operators to account for the linear kinematics of the discontinuity. To improve the continuity of the unknowns on both sides of the elements on which a static condensation is done, a contour integral has been added. These contour integrals named inter-elemental forces can be interpreted as a “do nothing” boundary condition (Coppola-Owen and Codina, 2011) published in another context, or as the usage of weighting functions that ensure convergence of the approach as proposed by J.C. Simo (Simo and Rifai, 1990). A series of numerical tests for scalar unknowns as a simple representation of more general numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the performance of the enriched elemental space.
Oliver, J.; Caicedo, M.; Huespe, A.; Hernandez, J.A.; Roubin , E. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 313, p. 560-595 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.09.039 Fecha de publicación: 2017-01 Artículo de revista
The paper proposes some new computational strategies for affordably solving multiscale fracture problems through a FE2 approach. To take into account the mechanical effects induced by fracture at the microstructure level the Representative Volume Element (RVE), assumed constituted by an elastic matrix and inclusions, is endowed with a large set of cohesive softening bands providing a good representation of the possible microstructure crack paths. The RVE response is then homogenized in accordance with a model previously developed by the authors and upscaled to the macro-scale level as a continuum stress–strain constitutive equation, which is then used in a conventional framework of a finite element modeling of propagating fracture.
For reduced order modeling (ROM) purposes, the RVE boundary value problem is first formulated in displacement fluctuations and used, via the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), to find a low-dimension space for solving the reduced problem. A domain separation strategy is proposed as a first technique for model order reduction: unconventionally, the low-dimension space is spanned by a basis in terms of fluctuating strains, as primitive kinematic variables, instead of the conventional formulation in terms of displacement fluctuations. The RVE spatial domain is then decomposed into a regular domain (made of the matrix and the inclusions) and a singular domain (constituted by cohesive bands), the required RVE boundary conditions are rephrased in terms of strains and imposed via Lagrange multipliers in the corresponding variational problem. Specific low-dimensional strain basis is then derived, independently for each domain, via the POD of the corresponding strain snapshots.
Next step consists of developing a hyper-reduced model (HPROM). It is based on a second proposed technique, the Reduced Optimal Quadrature (ROQ) which, again unconventionally, is determined through optimization of the numerical integration of the primitive saddle-point problem arising from the RVE problem, rather than its derived variational equations, and substitutes the conventional Gauss quadrature. The ROQ utilizes a very reduced number of, optimally placed, sampling points, the corresponding weights and placements being evaluated through a greedy algorithm. The resulting low-dimensional and reduced-quadrature variational problem translates into very relevant savings on the computational cost and high computational speed-ups.
Particular attention is additionally given to numerical tests and performance evaluations of the new hyper-reduced methodology, by “a-priori” and “a-posteriori” error assessments. Moreover, for the purposes of validation of the present techniques, a real structural problem exhibiting propagating fracture at two-scales is modeled on the basis of the strain injection-based multiscale approach previously developed by the authors. The performance of the proposed strategy, in terms of speed-up vs. error, is deeply analyzed and reported.
We present a general framework for the dimensional reduction, in terms of number of degrees of freedom as well as number of integration points (“hyper-reduction”), of nonlinear parameterized finite element (FE) models. The reduction process is divided into two sequential stages. The first stage consists in a common Galerkin projection onto a reduced-order space, as well as in the condensation of boundary conditions and external forces. For the second stage (reduction in number of integration points), we present a novel cubature scheme that efficiently determines optimal points and associated positive weights so that the error in integrating reduced internal forces is minimized. The distinguishing features of the proposed method are: (1) The minimization problem is posed in terms of orthogonal basis vector (obtained via a partitioned Singular Value Decomposition) rather that in terms of snapshots of the integrand. (2) The volume of the domain is exactly integrated. (3) The selection algorithm need not solve in all iterations a nonnegative least-squares problem to force the positiveness of the weights. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method converges to the absolute minimum (zero integration error) when the number of selected points is equal to the number of internal force modes included in the objective function. We illustrate this model reduction methodology by two nonlinear, structural examples (quasi-static bending and resonant vibration of elastoplastic composite plates). In both examples, the number of integration points is reduced three order of magnitudes (with respect to FE analyses) without significantly sacrificing accuracy.
This paper presents a new methodology to compute guaranteed upper bounds for the energy norm of the error in the context of linear finite element approximations of the reaction–diffusion equation. The new approach revisits the ideas in Parés et al. (2009) [6, 4], with the goal of substantially reducing the computational cost of the flux-free method while retaining the good quality of the bounds. The new methodology provides also a technique to compute equilibrated boundary tractions improving the quality of standard equilibration strategies. The zeroth-order equilibration conditions are imposed using an alternative less restrictive form of the first-order equilibration conditions, along with a new efficient minimization criterion. This new equilibration strategy provides much more accurate upper bounds for the energy and requires only doubling the dimension of the local linear systems of equations to be solved.
In this work, we develop a high-performance numerical framework for the large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible flows. The spatial discretization of the nonlinear system is carried out using mixed finite element (FE) schemes supplemented with symmetric projection stabilization of the convective term and a penalty term for the divergence constraint. These additional terms introduced at the discrete level have been proved to act as implicit LES models. In order to perform meaningful wall-unresolved simulations, we consider a weak imposition of the boundary conditions using a Nitsche’s-type scheme, where the tangential component penalty term is designed to act as a wall law. Next, segregated Runge–Kutta (SRK) schemes (recently proposed by the authors for laminar flow problems) are applied to the LES simulation of turbulent flows. By the introduction of a penalty term on the trace of the acceleration, these methods exhibit excellent stability properties for both implicit and explicit treatment of the convective terms. SRK schemes are excellent for large-scale simulations, since they reduce the computational cost of the linear system solves by splitting velocity and pressure computations at the time integration level, leading to two uncoupled systems. The pressure system is a Darcy-type problem that can easily be preconditioned using a traditional block-preconditioning scheme that only requires a Poisson solver. At the end, only coercive systems have to be solved, which can be effectively preconditioned by multilevel domain decomposition schemes, which are both optimal and scalable. The framework is applied to the Taylor–Green and turbulent channel flow benchmarks in order to prove the accuracy of the convection-stabilized mixed FEs as LES models and SRK time integrators. The scalability of the preconditioning techniques (in space only) has also been proven for one step of the SRK scheme for the Taylor–Green flow using uniform meshes. Moreover, a turbulent flow around a NACA profile is solved to show the applicability of the proposed algorithms for a realistic problem.
In this work, we propose a nonlinear stabilization technique for scalar conservation laws with implicit time stepping. The method relies on an artificial diffusion method, based on a graph-Laplacian operator. It is nonlinear, since it depends on a shock detector. Further, the resulting method is linearity preserving. The same shock detector is used to gradually lump the mass matrix. The resulting method is LED, positivity preserving, and also satisfies a global DMP. Lipschitz continuity has also been proved. However, the resulting scheme is highly nonlinear, leading to very poor nonlinear convergence rates. We propose a smooth version of the scheme, which leads to twice differentiable nonlinear stabilization schemes. It allows one to straightforwardly use Newton’s method and obtain quadratic convergence. In the numerical experiments, steady and transient linear transport, and transient Burgers’ equation have been considered in 2D. Using the Newton method with a smooth version of the scheme we can reduce 10 to 20 times the number of iterations of Anderson acceleration with the original non-smooth scheme. In any case, these properties are only true for the converged solution, but not for iterates. In this sense, we have also proposed the concept of projected nonlinear solvers, where a projection step is performed at the end of every nonlinear iterations onto a FE space of admissible solutions. The space of admissible solutions is the one that satisfies the desired monotonic properties (maximum principle or positivity).
Baiges, J.; Codina, R.; Pont-Ribas, A.; Castillo, E. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 313, p. 159-188 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.09.041 Fecha de publicación: 2017-01-01 Artículo de revista
In this work we present a Fixed-Mesh ALE method for the numerical simulation of free surface flows capable of using an adaptive finite element mesh covering a background domain. This mesh is successively refined and unrefined at each time step in order to focus the computational effort on the spatial regions where it is required. Some of the main ingredients of the formulation are the use of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian–Eulerian formulation for computing temporal derivatives, the use of stabilization terms for stabilizing convection, stabilizing the lack of compatibility between velocity and pressure interpolation spaces, and stabilizing the ill-conditioning introduced by the cuts on the background finite element mesh, and the coupling of the algorithm with an adaptive mesh refinement procedure suitable for running on distributed memory environments. Algorithmic steps for the projection between meshes are presented together with the algebraic fractional step approach used for improving the condition number of the linear systems to be solved. The method is tested in several numerical examples. The expected convergence rates both in space and time are observed. Smooth solution fields for both velocity and pressure are obtained (as a result of the contribution of the stabilization terms). Finally, a good agreement between the numerical results and the reference experimental data is obtained.
Amiri, F.; Millán, D.; Arroyo, M.; Silani, M.; Rabczuk, T. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 312, p. 254-275 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.02.011 Fecha de publicación: 2016-12 Artículo de revista
We apply a fourth order phase-field model for fracture based on local maximum entropy (LME) approximants. The higher order continuity of the meshfree LME approximants allows to directly solve the fourth order phase-field equations without splitting the fourth order differential equation into two second order differential equations. We will first show that the crack surface can be captured more accurately in the fourth order model. Furthermore, less nodes are needed for the fourth order model to resolve the crack path. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed meshfree fourth order phase-field formulation for 5 representative numerical examples. Computational results will be compared to analytical solutions within linear elastic fracture mechanics and experimental data for three-dimensional crack propagation.
The phase field method is proven to be a powerful tool in computational fracture mechanics in that it can predict crack nucleation and branching, in some cases, without explicitly tracking the crack path. However, in such applications as hydraulic fracturing or leakage, it is necessary or beneficial to have the crack geometry available. This paper presents a variational method to identify the crack path from phase field approaches to fracture. The method is proven to be successful not only for a simple curved crack but also for multiple and branched cracks. The algorithm employs the non-maximum suppression technique, a procedure borrowed from the image processing field, to detect a bounding area which covers the ridge of the phase field profile. After that, it is continued with the step to determine a cubic spline to represent the crack path and to improve it via a constrained optimization process. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we provide the results with three sets of representative examples.
The phase field method has proven to be an important tool in computational fracture mechanics in that it does not require complicated crack tracking and is able to predict crack nucleation and branching. However, the computational cost of such a method is high due to a small regularization length parameter, which in turn restricts the maximum element size that can be used in a finite element mesh. In this work we developed a massively parallel algorithm on the graphical processing unit (GPU) to alleviate this difficulty in the case of dynamic brittle fracture. In particular, we adopted the standard finite element method on an unstructured mesh combined with second order explicit integrators. To ensure stability, we designed a time adaptivity strategy to account for the decreasing critical time step during the evolution of the fields. We demonstrated the performance of the GPU-implemented phase field models by means of representative numerical examples, with which we studied the effect of the artificial viscosity, an artificial parameter to be input, and compared the crack path branching predictions from three popular phase field models. Finally, we verified the method with convergence studies and performed a scalability study to demonstrate the desired linear scaling of the program in terms of the wall time per physical time as a function of the number of degrees of freedom.
We present a new stabilized finite element (FEM) formulation for incompressible flows based on the Finite
Increment Calculus (FIC) framework. In comparison to existing FIC approaches for fluids, this formulation
involves a new term in the momentum equation, which introduces non-isotropic dissipation in the direction of
velocity gradients. We also follow a new approach to the derivation of the stabilized mass equation, inspired by
recent developments for quasi-incompressible flows. The presented FIC-FEM formulation is used to simulate
turbulent flows, using the dissipation introduced by the method to account for turbulent dissipation in the style
of implicit large eddy simulation.
The topological sensitivity analysis for the heterogeneous and anisotropic elasticity problem in two-dimensions is performed in this work. The main result of the paper is an analytical closed-form of the topological derivative for the total potential energy of the problem. This derivative displays the sensitivity of the cost functional (the energy in this case) when a small singular perturbation is introduced in an arbitrary point of the domain. In this case, we consider a small disc with a completely different elastic material. Full mathematical justification for the derived formula, and derivations of precise estimates for the remainders of the topological asymptotic expansion are provided. Finally, the influence of the heterogeneity and anisotropy is shown through some numerical examples of structural topology optimization.
In this paper, the stabilized finite element approximation of the Stokes eigenvalue problems is considered for both the two-field (displacement–pressure) and the three-field (stress–displacement–pressure) formulations. The method presented is based on a subgrid scale concept, and depends on the approximation of the unresolvable scales of the continuous solution. In general, subgrid scale techniques consist in the addition of a residual based term to the basic Galerkin formulation. The application of a standard residual based stabilization method to a linear eigenvalue problem leads to a quadratic eigenvalue problem in discrete form which is physically inconvenient. As a distinguished feature of the present study, we take the space of the unresolved subscales orthogonal to the finite element space, which promises a remedy to the above mentioned complication. In essence, we put forward that only if the orthogonal projection is used, the residual is simplified and the use of term by term stabilization is allowed. Thus, we do not need to put the whole residual in the formulation, and the linear eigenproblem form is recovered properly. We prove that the method applied is convergent, and present the error estimates for the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions. We report several numerical tests in order to illustrate that the theoretical results are validated.
The aim of this work is to propose an hp-adaptive algorithm for discontinuous Galerkin methods that is capable to detect the discontinuities and sharp layers and avoid the spurious oscillation of the solution around them. In order to control the spurious oscillations, artificial viscosity is used with the particularity that it is only applied around the layers where the solution changes abruptly. To do so, a novel troubled-cell detector has been developed in order to mark the elements around those layers and to impose linear order in them. The detector takes advantage of the evolution of the value of the gradient through the adaptive process.
Lloberas-Valls, O.; Huespe, A.; Oliver, J.; Dias, I. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 308, p. 499-534 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.05.023 Fecha de publicación: 2016-08 Artículo de revista
A computationally affordable modeling of dynamic fracture phenomena is performed in this study by using strain injection techniques and Finite Elements with Embedded strong discontinuities (E-FEM). In the present research, classical strain localization and strong discontinuity approaches are considered by injecting discontinuous strain and displacement modes in the finite element formulation without an increase of the total number of degrees of freedom. Following the Continuum Strong Discontinuity Approach (CSDA), stress–strain constitutive laws can be employed in the context of fracture phenomena and, therefore, the methodology remains applicable to a wide number of continuum mechanics models. The position and orientation of the displacement discontinuity is obtained through the solution of a crack propagation problem, i.e. the crack path field, based on the distribution of localized strains. The combination of the above mentioned approaches is envisaged to avoid stress-locking and directional mesh bias phenomena.
Dynamic simulations are performed increasing the loading rate up to the appearance of crack branching, and the variation in terms of failure modes is investigated as well as the influence of the strain injection together with the crack path field algorithm. Objectivity of the presented methodology with respect to the spatial and temporal discretization is analyzed in terms of the dissipated energy during the fracture process. The dissipation at the onset of branching is studied for different loading rate conditions and is linked to the experimental maximum velocity observed before branching takes place.
The variational multiscale method thought as an implicit large eddy simulation model for turbulent flows has been shown to be an alternative to the widely used physical-based models. This method is traditionally combined with equal-order velocity–pressure pairs, since it provides pressure stabilization. In this work, we consider a different approach, based on inf–sup stable elements and convection-only stabilization. In order to do so, we consider a symmetric projection stabilization of the convective term using an orthogonal subscale decomposition. The accuracy and efficiency of this method compared with residual-based algebraic subgrid scales and orthogonal subscales methods for equal-order interpolation is assessed in this paper. Moreover, when inf–sup stable elements are used, the grad–div stabilization term has been shown to be essential to guarantee accurate solutions. Hence, a study of the influence of such term in the large eddy simulation of turbulent incompressible flows is also performed. Furthermore, a recursive block preconditioning strategy has been considered for the resolution of the problem with an implicit treatment of the projection terms. Two different benchmark tests have been solved: the Taylor–Green Vortex flow with Re=1600Re=1600, and the Turbulent Channel Flow at Ret=395Ret=395 and Ret=590Ret=590.
This paper presents a particle-based Lagrangian–Eulerian algorithm for the solution of the unsteady advection–diffusion–reaction heat transfer equation with phase change. The algorithm combines a Lagrangian formulation for the advection + reaction problem with the Eulerian-based heat source method for the diffusion + phase change problem. The coupling between the Lagrangian and Eulerian subproblems is achieved with a phase change detector scheme based on a local latent heat balance and a consistent/conservative interpolation technique between Lagrangian particles and the Eulerian grid. This technique makes use of an auxiliary (finer) Eulerian grid that provides a simple and efficient method of tracking internal heterogeneities (e.g. phase boundaries), allows the use of higher order integration quadratures, and facilitates the implementation of multiscale techniques. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared against one- and two-dimensional benchmark problems, i.e. pure rigid-body advection, isothermal and non-isothermal phase change, two-phase advective heat transfer and chemical reactions coupled with diffusion and advection. The numerical results confirm that the proposed solution method is accurate, oscillation-free and useful for and applicable to a wide range of fully coupled problems in science and engineering.
In this paper we present an accurate stabilized FIC-FEM formulation for the 1D advection-diffusion-reaction equation in the exponential and propagation regimes using two stabilization parameters. Both the steady-state and transient solutions are considered.
The stabilized formulation is based on the standard Galerkin FEM solution of the governing differential equations derived via the Finite Increment Calculus (FIC) method. The steady-state problem is considered first. The optimal value of the two stabilization parameters ensuring an exact (nodal) FEM solution using uniform meshes of linear 2-noded elements is obtained. In the absence of the absorption term the formulation simplifies to the standard one-parameter Petrov-Galerkin method for the advection-diffusion problem. For the diffusion-reaction case one stabilization parameter is just needed and the diffusion-type stabilization term is identical to that obtained by Felippa and Oñate (2007) using a variational FIC approach. A procedure for computing the stabilization parameters for the transient problem is proposed. The accuracy of the new FIC-FEM formulation is demonstrated in the solution of steady-state and transient 1D advection-diffusion-radiation problems for a the range of physical parameters and boundary conditions. Finally we outline the procedure to extend the 1D FIC-FEM formulation to multidimensions.
We present a Lagrangian monolithic strategy for solving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. The formulation is called Unified because fluids and solids are solved using the same solution scheme and unknown variables. The method is based on a mixed velocity-pressure formulation. Each time step increment is solved via an iterative partitioned two-step procedure. The Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) is used for solving the fluid parts of the domain, while for the solid ones the Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed. Both velocity and pressure fields are interpolated using linear shape functions. For quasi-incompressible materials, the solution scheme is stabilized via the Finite Calculus (FIC) method. The stabilized elements for quasi-incompressible hypoelastic solids and Newtonian fluids are called VPS/S-element and VPS/F-element, respectively. Other two non-stabilized elements are derived for hypoelastic solids. One is based on a Velocity formulation (V-element) and the other on a mixed Velocity-Pressure scheme (VP-element). The algorithms for coupling the solid elements with the VPS/F fluid element are explained in detail. The Unified formulation is validated by solving benchmark FSI problems and by comparing the numerical solution to the ones published in the literature.
In this paper we analyze time marching schemes for the wave equation in mixed form. The problem is discretized in space using stabilized finite elements. On the one hand, stability and convergence analyses of the fully discrete numerical schemes are presented using different time integration schemes and appropriate functional settings. On the other hand, we use Fourier techniques (also known as von Neumann analysis) in order to analyze stability, dispersion and dissipation. Numerical convergence tests are presented for various time integration schemes, polynomial interpolations (for the spatial discretization), stabilization methods, and variational forms. To analyze the behavior of the different schemes considered, a 1D wave propagation problem is solved. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nadal, E.; Chinesta, F.; Diez, P.; Fuenmayor, F.; Denia, F. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 296, p. 113-128 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.07.020 Fecha de publicación: 2015-11-01 Artículo de revista
Some industrial processes are modelled by parametric partial differential equations. Integrating computational modelling and data assimilation into the control process requires obtaining a solution of the numerical model at the characteristic frequency of the process (real-time). This paper introduces a computational strategy allowing to efficiently exploit measurements of those industrial processes, providing the solution of the model at the required frequency. This is particularly interesting in the framework of control algorithms that rely on a model involving a set of parameters. For instance, the curing process of a composite material is modelled as a thermo-mechanical problem whose corresponding parameters describe the thermal and mechanical behaviours. In this context, the information available (measurements) is used to update the parameters of the model and to produce new values of the control variables (data assimilation). The methodology presented here is devised to ensure the possibility of having a response in real-time of the problem and therefore the capability of integrating it in the control scheme. The Proper Generalized Decomposition is used to describe the solution in the multi-parametric space. The real-time data assimilation requires a further simplification of the solution representation that better fits the data (reconstructed solution) and it provides an implicit parameter identification. Moreover, the analysis of the assimilated data sensibility with respect to the points where the measurements are taken suggests a criterion to locate of the sensors.
Garcia, J.; Di Capua, D.; Serván, B.; Ubach, P.; Oñate, E. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 295, p. 290-304 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.07.010 Fecha de publicación: 2015-10-01 Artículo de revista
This paper shows the recent work of the authors in the development of a time-domain FEM model for evaluation of the seal dynamics of a surface effect ship. The fluid solver developed for this purpose, uses a potential flow approach along with a streamline integration of the free surface. The paper focuses on the free surface-structure algorithm that has been developed to allow the simulation of the complex and highly dynamic behaviour of the seals in the interface between the air cushion, and the water.; The developed fluid-structure interaction solver is based, on one side, on an implicit iteration algorithm, communicating pressure forces and displacements of the seals at memory level and, on the other side, on an innovative wetting and drying scheme able to predict the water action on the seals. The stability of the iterative scheme is improved by means of relaxation, and the convergence is accelerated using Aitken's method.; Several validations against experimental results have been carried out to demonstrate the developed algorithm. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving the Helmholtz equation for a large number of input data in an heterogeneous media and unbounded domain still represents a challenge. This is due to the particular nature of the Helmholtz operator and the sensibility of the solution to small variations of the data. Here a reduced order model is used to determine the scattered solution everywhere in the domain for any incoming wave direction and frequency. Moreover, this is applied to a real engineering problem: water agitation inside real harbors for low to mid-high frequencies. The Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) model reduction approach is used to obtain a separable representation of the solution at any point and for any incoming wave direction and frequency. Here, its applicability to such a problem is discussed and demonstrated. More precisely, the contributions of the paper include the PGD implementation into a Perfectly Matched Layer framework to model the unbounded domain, and the separability of the operator which is addressed here using an efficient higher-order projection scheme. Then, the performance of the PGD in this framework is discussed and improved using the higher-order projection and a Petrov-Galerkin approach to construct the separated basis. Moreover, the efficiency of the higherorder projection scheme is demonstrated and compared with the higher-order singular value decomposition.
Oliver, J.; Caicedo, M.; Roubin , E.; Huespe, A.; Hernandez, J.A. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 294, p. 384-427 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.05.012 Fecha de publicación: 2015-09 Artículo de revista
A new approach to two-scale modeling of propagating fracture, based on computational homogenization (FE2), is presented. The specific features of the approach are: a) a continuum setting for representation of the fracture at both scales based on the Continuum Strong Discontinuity Approach (CSDA), and b) the use, for the considered non-smooth (discontinuous) problem, of the same computational homogenization framework than for classical smooth cases. As a key issue, the approach retrieves a characteristic length computed at the lower scale, which is exported to the upper one and used therein as a regularization parameter for a propagating strong discontinuity kinematics. This guarantees the correct transfer of fracture energy between scales and the proper dissipation at the upper scale. Representative simulations show that the resulting formulation provides consistent results, which are objective with respect to, both, size and bias of the upper-scale mesh, and with respect to the size of the lower-scale RVE/failure cell, as well as the capability to model propagating cracks at the upper scale, in combination with crack-path-field and strain injection techniques. The continuum character of the approach confers to the formulation a minimal invasive character, with respect to standard procedures for multi-scale computational homogenization.
The simulation of immiscible two-phase flows on Eulerian meshes requires the use of special techniques to guarantee a sharp definition of the evolving fluid interface. This work describes the combination of two distinct technologies with the goal of improving the accuracy of the target simulations. First of all, a spatial enrichment is employed to improve the approximation properties of the Eulerian mesh. This is done by injecting into the solution space new features to make it able to correctly resolve the solution in the vicinity of the moving interface. Then, the Lagrangian Particle Level Set (PLS) method is employed to keep trace of the evolving solution and to improve the mass conservation properties of the resulting method. While the local enrichment can be understood in the general context of the XFEM, we employ an element-local variant, which allows preserving the matrix graph, and hence highly improving the computational efficiency. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, E.; Nigro, N.; Becker, P.; Gimenez, J. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 293, p. 191-206 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.04.003 Fecha de publicación: 2015-08 Artículo de revista
The possibility to use a Lagrangian frame to solve problems with large time-steps was successfully explored previously by the authors for the solution of homogeneous incompressible fluids and also for solving multi-fluid problems (Idelsohn et al. 2012; 2014; 2013). The strategy used by the authors was named Particle Finite Element Method second generation (PFEM-2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate in which circumstances the use of a Lagrangian frame with particles is more accurate than a classical Eulerian finite element method, and when large time-steps and/or coarse meshes may be used.
Baiges, J.; Codina, R.; Idelsohn, Sergio R. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 291, num. July, p. 173-196 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.03.020 Fecha de publicación: 2015-07-01 Artículo de revista
In this work the Reduced-Order Subscales for Proper Orthogonal Decomposition models are presented. The basic idea consists in splitting the full-order solution into the part which can be captured by the reduced-order model and the part which cannot, the subscales, for which a model is required. The proposed model for the subscales is defined as a linear function of the solution of the reduced-order model. The coefficients of this linear function are obtained by comparing the solution of the full-order model with the solution of the reduced-order model for the same initial conditions, which, for convenience, are evaluated in the snapshots used to train the original reduced-order-model. The difference between both solutions are the subscales, for which a model can be built using a least-squares procedure. The subscales are then introduced as a correction in the reduced-order model, resulting in an important improvement in accuracy. The enhanced reduced-order model is tested in several numerical examples. These practical cases show that the use of the subscales leads to more accurate solutions, successfully corrects errors introduced by hyper-reduction, and allows to solve complex flow problems using a reduced number of degrees of freedom.
Nadal, E.; Diez, P.; Ródenas, J.; Tur, M.; Fuenmayor, F. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 287, p. 172-190 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2015.01.013 Fecha de publicación: 2015-04-15 Artículo de revista
Significant research effort has been devoted to produce one-sided error estimates for Finite Element Analyses, in particular to provide upper bounds of the actual error. Typically, this has been achieved using residual-type estimates. One of the most popular and simpler (in terms of implementation) techniques used in commercial codes is the recovery-based error estimator. This technique produces accurate estimations of the exact error but is not designed to naturally produce upper bounds of the error in energy norm. Some attempts to remedy this situation provide bounds depending on unknown constants. Here, a new step towards obtaining error bounds from the recovery-based estimates is proposed. The idea is (1) to use a locally equilibrated recovery technique to obtain an accurate estimation of the exact error, (2) to add an explicit-type error bound of the lack of equilibrium of the recovered stresses in order to guarantee a bound of the actual error and (3) to efficiently and accurately evaluate the constants appearing in the bounding expressions, thus providing asymptotic bounds. The numerical tests with h-adaptive refinement process show that the bounding property holds even for coarse meshes, providing upper bounds in practical applications. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The aim of this work is to propose a monotonicity-preserving method for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) approximations of convection–diffusion problems. To do so, a novel definition of discrete maximum principle (DMP) is proposed using the discrete variational setting of the problem, and we show that the fulfilment of this DMP implies that the minimum/maximum (depending on the sign of the forcing term) is on the boundary for multidimensional problems. Then, an artificial viscosity (AV) technique is designed for convection-dominant problems that satisfies the above mentioned DMP. The noncomplete stabilized interior penalty dG method is proved to fulfil the DMP property for the one-dimensional linear case when adding such AV with certain parameters. The benchmarks for the constant values to satisfy the DMP are calculated and tested in the numerical experiments section. Finally, the method is applied to different test problems in one and two dimensions to show its performance.
Cervera, M.; Chiumenti, M.; Benedetti, L.; Codina, R. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 285, p. 752-775 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.11.040 Fecha de publicación: 2015-03 Artículo de revista
This paper presents the application of a stabilized mixed strain/displacement finite element formulation for the solution of nonlinear solid mechanics problems involving compressible and incompressible plasticity. The variational multiscale stabilization introduced allows the use of equal order interpolations in a consistent way. Such formulation presents two advantages when compared to the standard, displacement based, irreducible formulation: (a) it provides enhanced rate of convergence for the strain (and stress) field and (b) it is able to deal with incompressible situations. The first advantage also applies to the comparison with the mixed pressure/displacement formulation. The paper investigates the effect of the improved strain and stress fields in problems involving strain softening and localization leading to failure, using low order finite elements with continuous strain and displacement fields (P1P1 triangles or tetrahedra and Q1Q1 quadrilaterals, hexahedra, and triangular prisms) in conjunction with an associative frictional Drucker-Prager plastic model. The performance of the strain/displacement formulation under compressible and nearly incompressible deformation patterns is assessed and compared to a previously proposed pressure/displacement formulation. Benchmark numerical examples show the capacity of the mixed formulation to predict correctly failure mechanisms with localized patterns of strain, virtually free from any dependence of the mesh directional bias. No auxiliary crack tracking technique is necessary.
Colomés, O.; Badia, S.; Codina, R.; Principe, J. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 285, p. 32-63 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.10.041 Fecha de publicación: 2015-03 Artículo de revista
In this work we study the performance of some variational multiscale models (VMS) in the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. We consider VMS models obtained by different subgrid scale approximations which include either static or dynamic subscales, linear or nonlinear multiscale splitting, and different choices of the subscale space. After a brief review of these models, we discuss some implementation aspects particularly relevant to the simulation of turbulent flows, namely the use of a skew symmetric form of the convective term and the computation of projections when orthogonal subscales are used. We analyze the energy conservation (and numerical dissipation) of the alternative VMS formulations, which is numerically evaluated. In the numerical study, we have considered three well known problems: the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence, the Taylor–Green vortex problem and the turbulent flow in a channel. We compare the results obtained using different VMS models, paying special attention to the effect of using orthogonal subscale spaces. The VMS results are also compared against classical LES scheme based on filtering and the dynamic Smagorinsky closure. Altogether, our results show the tremendous potential of VMS for the numerical simulation of turbulence. Further, we study the sensitivity of VMS to the algorithmic constants and analyze the behavior in the small time step limit. We have also carried out a computational cost comparison of the different formulations. Out of these experiments, we can state that the numerical results obtained with the different VMS formulations (as far as they converge) are quite similar. However, some choices are prone to instabilities and the results obtained in terms of computational cost are certainly different. The dynamic orthogonal subscales model turns out to be best in terms of efficiency and robustness.
In this paper, we devise cell-based maximum-entropy (max-ent) basis functions that are used in a Galerkin method for the solution of partial differential equations. The motivation behind this work is the construction of smooth approximants with controllable support on unstructured meshes. In the variational scheme to obtain max-ent basis functions, the nodal prior weight function is constructed from an approximate distance function to a polygonal curve in R-2. More precisely, we take powers of the composition of R-functions via Boolean operations. The basis functions so constructed are nonnegative, smooth, linearly complete, and compactly-supported in a neighbor-ring of segments that enclose each node. The smoothness is controlled by two positive integer parameters: the normalization order of the approximation of the distance function and the power to which it is raised. The properties and mathematical foundations of the new compactly-supported approximants are described, and its use to solve two-dimensional elliptic boundary-value problems (Poisson equation and linear elasticity) is demonstrated. The sound accuracy and the optimal rates of convergence of the method in Sobolev norms are established. (C) 2014 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
In previous works, the authors have presented the stabilized mixed displacement/pressure formulation to deal with the incompressibility constraint. More recently, the authors have derived stable mixed stress/displacement formulations using linear/linear interpolations to enhance stress accuracy in both linear and non-linear problems. In both cases, the Variational Multi Scale (VMS) stabilization technique and, in particular, the Orthogonal Subgrid Scale (OSS) method allows the use of linear/linear interpolations for triangular and tetrahedral elements bypassing the strictness of the inf-sup condition on the choice of the interpolation spaces. These stabilization procedures lead to discrete problems which are fully stable, free of volumetric locking or stress oscillations.; This work exploits the concept of mixed finite element methods to formulate stable displacement/stress/pressure finite elements aimed for the solution of nonlinear problems for both solid and fluid finite element (FE) analyses. The final goal is to design a finite element technology able to tackle simultaneously problems which may involve isochoric behavior (preserve the original volume) of the strain field together with high degree of accuracy of the stress field. These two features are crucial in nonlinear solid and fluid mechanics, as used in most numerical simulations of industrial manufacturing processes.; Numerical benchmarks show that the results obtained compare very favorably with those obtained with the corresponding mixed displacement/pressure formulation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this paper, three-field finite element stabilized formulations are proposed for the numerical solution of incompressible viscoelastic flows. These methods allow one to use equal interpolation for the problem unknowns sigma-u-p (elastic deviatoric stress-velocity-pressure) and to stabilize dominant convective terms. Starting from residual-based stabilized formulations, the proposed method introduces a term-by-term stabilization which is shown to have a superior behavior when there are stress singularities. A general discontinuity-capturing technique for the elastic stress component is also proposed, which allows one to eliminate the local oscillations that can appear when the Weissenberg number We is high and the fluid flow finds an abrupt change in the geometry. The formulations are tested in the classical 4:1 planar contraction benchmark up to We = 5 in the inertial case, with Reynolds number Re = 1, and up to We = 6.5 in the quasi non-inertial case, with Re = 0.01. The standard Oldroyd-B constitutive model is used for the rheological behavior and linear and quadratic elements for the spatial approximation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The three-field (stress velocity pressure) mixed formulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes problem can lead to two different types of numerical instabilities. The first is associated with the incompressibility and loss of stability in the calculation of the stress field, and the second with the dominant convection. The first type of instabilities can be overcome by choosing an interpolation for the unknowns that satisfies the appropriate inf-sup conditions, whereas the dominant convection requires a stabilized formulation in any case. This paper proposes two stabilized schemes of Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) type, differing in the definition of the space of the sub-grid scales, and both allowing to use the same interpolation for the variables sigma-u-p (deviatoric stress, velocity and pressure), even in problems where the convection component is dominant and the velocity stress gradients are high. Another aspect considered in this work is the non-linearity of the viscosity, modeled with constitutive models of quasi-Newtonian type. This paper includes a description of the proposed methods, some of their implementation issues and a discussion about benefits and drawbacks of a three-field formulation. Several numerical examples serve to justify our claims. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hernandez, J.A.; Oliver, J.; Huespe, A.; Caicedo, M.; Cante, J.C. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 276, p. 149-189 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.03.011 Fecha de publicación: 2014-07-01 Artículo de revista
A novel model-order reduction technique for the solution of the fine-scale equilibrium problem appearing in computational homogenization is presented. The reduced set of empirical shape functions is obtained using a partitioned version that accounts for the elastic/inelastic character of the solution - of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). On the other hand, it is shown that the standard approach of replacing the nonaffine term by an interpolant constructed using only POD modes leads to ill-posed formulations. We demonstrate that this ill-posedness can be avoided by enriching the approximation space with the span of the gradient of the empirical shape functions. Furthermore, interpolation points are chosen guided, not only by accuracy requirements, but also by stability considerations. The approach is assessed in the homogenization of a highly complex porous metal material. Computed results show that computational complexity is independent of the size and geometrical complexity of the Representative Volume Element. The speedup factor is over three orders of magnitude - as compared with finite element analysis - whereas the maximum error in stresses is less than 10%. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A novel model-order reduction technique for the solution of the fine-scale equilibrium problem appearing in computational homogenization is presented. The reduced set of empirical shape functions is obtained using a partitioned version that accounts for the elastic/inelastic character of the solution - of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). On the other hand, it is shown that the standard approach of replacing the nonaffine term by an interpolant constructed using only POD modes leads to ill-posed formulations. We demonstrate that this ill-posedness can be avoided by enriching the approximation space with the span of the gradient of the empirical shape functions. Furthermore, interpolation points are chosen guided, not only by accuracy requirements, but also by stability considerations. The approach is assessed in the homogenization of a highly complex porous metal material. Computed results show that computational complexity is independent of the size and geometrical complexity of the Representative Volume Element. The speedup factor is over three orders of magnitude - as compared with finite element analysis - whereas the maximum error in stresses is less than 10%.
In this paper we develop numerical approximations of the wave equation in mixed form supplemented with non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) of Sommerfeld-type on artificial boundaries for truncated domains. We consider three different variational forms for this problem, depending on the functional space for the solution, in particular, in what refers to the regularity required on artificial boundaries. Then, stabilized finite element methods that can mimic these three functional settings are described. Stability and convergence analyses of these stabilized formulations including the NRBC are presented. Additionally, numerical convergence test are evaluated for various polynomial interpolations, stabilization methods and variational forms. Finally, several benchmark problems are solved to determine the accuracy of these methods in 2D and 3D. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this paper we develop numerical approximations of the wave equation in mixed form supplemented with non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) of Sommerfeld-type on artificial boundaries for truncated domains. We consider three different variational forms for this problem, depending on the functional space for the solution, in particular, in what refers to the regularity required on artificial boundaries. Then, stabilized finite element methods that can mimic these three functional settings are described. Stability and convergence analyses of these stabilized formulations including the NRBC are presented. Additionally, numerical convergence test are evaluated for various polynomial interpolations, stabilization methods and variational forms. Finally, several benchmark problems are solved to determine the accuracy of these methods in 2D and 3D.
The work presents two new numerical techniques devised for modeling propagating material failure, i.e. cracks in fracture mechanics or slip-lines in soil mechanics. The first one is termed crack-path-field technique and is conceived for the identification of the path of those cracks, or slip-lines, represented by strain-localization based solutions of the material failure problem. The second one is termed strain-injection, and consists of a procedure to insert, during specific stages of the simulation and in selected areas of the domain of analysis, goal oriented specific strain fields via mixed finite element formulations. In the approach, a first injection, of elemental constant strain modes (CSM) in quadrilaterals, is used, in combination of the crack-path-field technique, for obtaining reliable information that anticipates the position of the crack-path. Based on this information, in a subsequent stage, a discontinuous displacement mode (DDM) is efficiently injected, ensuring the required continuity of the crack-path across sides of contiguous elements. Combination of both techniques results in an efficient and robust procedure based on the staggered resolution of the crack-path-field and the mechanical failure problems. It provides the classical advantages of the "intra-elemental" methods for capturing complex propagating displacement discontinuities in coarse meshes, as E-FEM or X-FEM methods, with the non-code-invasive character of the crack-path-field technique. Numerical representative simulations of a wide range of benchmarks, in terms of the type of material and the failure problem, show the broad applicability, accuracy and robustness of the proposed methodology. The finite element code used for the simulations is open-source and available at http://www.cimne.com/compdesmat/. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The work presents two new numerical techniques devised for modeling propagating material failure, i.e. cracks in fracture mechanics or slip-lines in soil mechanics. The first one is termed crack-path-field technique and is conceived for the identification of the path of those cracks, or slip-lines, represented by strain-localization based solutions of the material failure problem. The second one is termed strain-injection, and consists of a procedure to insert, during specific stages of the simulation and in selected areas of the domain of analysis, goal oriented specific strain fields via mixed finite element formulations. In the approach, a first injection, of elemental constant strain modes (CSM) in quadrilaterals, is used, in combination of the crack-path-field technique, for obtaining reliable information that anticipates the position of the crack-path. Based on this information, in a subsequent stage, a discontinuous displacement mode (DDM) is efficiently injected, ensuring the required continuity of the crack-path across sides of contiguous elements. Combination of both techniques results in an efficient and robust procedure based on the staggered resolution of the crack-path-field and the mechanical failure problems. It provides the classical advantages of the “intra-elemental” methods for capturing complex propagating displacement discontinuities in coarse meshes, as E-FEM or X-FEM methods, with the non-code-invasive character of the crack-path-field technique. Numerical representative simulations of a wide range of benchmarks, in terms of the type of material and the failure problem, show the broad applicability, accuracy and robustness of the proposed methodology. The finite element code used for the simulations is open-source and available at http://www.cimne.com/compdesmat/.
The extended finite element method (XFEM) is an efficient way to include discontinuities, such as a crack, into a finite element mesh. The singularity at the crack tip restricts standard finite element methods to converge with a rate of at most 1/2 for the stresses, and I for the displacements, with respect to the mesh size. This is true for cracks in incompressible materials as well, when any of the standard techniques to sidestep locking is adopted. To attain an optimal convergence rate of 1 for stresses and of 2 for displacements with piecewise affine elements, it is necessary to enrich the finite element space with singular basis functions. The support of these singular functions is the entire plane, but to avoid decreasing the sparsity of the stiffness matrix too much, each of them is then generally localized to a neighborhood of the crack tip by multiplying by a cutoff function or a subset of a partition-of-unity basis. For nearly incompressible materials, however, the resulting basis functions no longer contain incompressible displacement fields, and hence they either lead to locking or suboptimal convergence rates. To overcome this problem, we introduce here an XFEM with optimal convergence rate and without the problem of locking for nearly incompressible materials, i.e., it possesses an error bound that does not diverge as Poisson's ratio approaches 0.5. The method is based on a primal, or one-field formulation of a discontinuous Galerkin method that we introduced earlier. This one-field formulation is obtained through the introduction of a lifting operator, but unlike most lifting operators which map inter-element discontinuities into elementwise polynomials, ours maps such discontinuities into spaces enriched with the singular behavior of the solution. This is the key idea for the method to be simultaneously locking-free and optimally convergent. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
We have developed an efficient method to model the fluid lag in fluid-driven fracture propagation via a variational inequality formulation. The distinct feature of this method is that the configurations with and without a lag can be handled in a unified framework and no change of formulation is needed during the simulation at the time the fracturing liquid reaches the fracture tip. This is achieved by formulating the problem as solving for the non-negative pressure field in the fracture via a time-dependent (parabolic) variational inequality. Without introducing extra assumptions but merely based on mass conservation, this method is able to predict whether a fluid lag is going to remain or completely disappear as the fracturing progresses. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oñate, E.; Nadukandi, P.; Idelsohn, Sergio R. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering Vol. 271, p. 185-209 DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2013.12.009 Fecha de publicación: 2014-04 Artículo de revista
We present a 3-noded triangle and a 4-noded tetrahedra with a continuous linear velocity and a discontinuous linear pressure field formed by the sum of an unknown constant pressure field and a prescribed linear field that satisfies the steady state momentum equations for a constant body force. The elements are termed P1/P0+ as the "effective" pressure field is linear, although the unknown pressure field is piecewise constant within each element. The elements have an excellent behavior for incompressible viscous flow problems with discontinuous material properties formulated in either Eulerian or Lagrangian descriptions. The necessary numerical stabilization for dealing with the inf-sup condition imposed by the incompressibility constraint and high convective effects (in Eulerian flows) is introduced via the Finite Calculus (FIC) approach. For the sake of clarity, the element derivation is presented first for the simpler Stokes equations written in the standard Eulerian frame. The extension of the formulation to the Navier-Stokes equations written in the Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks is straightforward and is presented in the second part of the paper.; The efficiency and accuracy of the new P1/P0+ triangle is verified by solving a set of incompressible multifluid flow problems using a Lagrangian approach and a classical Eulerian description. The excellent performance of the new triangular element in terms of mass conservation and general accuracy for analysis of fluids with discontinuous material properties is highlighted. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Isogeometric analysis (IGA) is emerging as a technology bridging computer aided geometric design (CAGD), most commonly based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) surfaces, and engineering analysis. In finite element and boundary element isogeometric methods (FE-IGA and IGA-BEM), the NURBS basis functions that describe the geometry define also the approximation spaces. In the FE-IGA approach, the surfaces generated by the CAGD tools need to be extended to volumetric descriptions, a major open problem in 3D. This additional passage can be avoided in principle when the partial differential equations to be solved admit a formulation in terms of boundary integral equations, leading to boundary element isogeometric analysis (IGA-BEM). The main advantages of such an approach are given by the dimensionality reduction of the problem (from volumetric-based to surface-based), by the fact that the interface with CAGD tools is direct, and by the possibility to treat exterior problems, where the computational domain is infinite. By contrast, these methods produce system matrices which are full, and require the integration of singular kernels. In this paper we address the second point and propose a nonsingular formulation of IGA-BEM for 3D Stokes flows, whose convergence is carefully tested numerically. Standard Gaussian quadrature rules suffice to integrate the boundary integral equations, and carefully chosen known exact solutions of the interior Stokes problem are used to correct the resulting matrices, extending the work by Klaseboer et al. (2012)  to IGA-BEM.