Este escrito pretende sintetizar unos años de investigación sobre el tema de las relaciones entre edificios ya edificados, de mayor o menor valor cultural, y los nuevos proyectos arquitectónicos o urbanísticos. Es pues un tema que intenta analizar la articulación entre proyecto e historia. Lo hace desde una perspectiva dialógica, debido al enorme impulso que este paradigma de las ciencias sociales ha conseguido tener en los últimos años (1), gracias a la difusión de las obras del intelectual ruso Mijaíl BajtÍn. El texto empieza por describir brevemente el estado de la cuestión, desde la conocida polémica entre Ruskin y Viollet-le-duc (2), hasta llegar, en un segundo capítulo, a las definiciones de un paradigma dialógico en arquitectura y urbanismo. Por último, unos ejemplos breves intentan ilustrar un paradigma dialógico abierto al futuro.
The Internet of Things (IoT) marks a phase transition in the evolution of the Internet, distinguished by a massive connectivity and the interaction with the physical world. The organic evolution of IoT requires the consideration of three dimensions: scale, organization, and context. These dimensions are particularly relevant in Ultra Large Scale Systems (ULSS), of which autonomous vehicles is a prime example. Fog Computing is well positioned to support contextual awareness and communication, critical for ULSS. The design and orchestration of ULSS require fresh approaches, new organizing principles. A recent paper proposed Hierarchical Emergent Behaviors (HEB), an architecture that builds on established concepts of emergent behaviors and hierarchical decomposition and organization. HEB’s local rules induce emergent behaviors, i.e., useful behaviors not explicitly programmed. In this chapter we take a first step to validate HEB concepts through the study of two basic self-driven car “primitives”: exiting a platoon formation, and maneuvering in anticipation of obstacles beyond the range of on-board sensors. Fog nodes provide the critical contextual information required.
Advances in Nonlinear Geosciences is a set of contributions from the participants of “30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics” held July 3-8, 2016 in Rhodes, Greece as part of the Aegean Conferences, as well as from several other experts in the field who could not attend the meeting. The volume brings together up-to-date research from the atmospheric sciences, hydrology, geology, and other areas of geosciences and presents the new advances made in the last 10 years. Topics include chaos synchronization, topological data analysis, new insights on fractals, multifractals and stochasticity, climate dynamics, extreme events, complexity, and causality, among other topics.
Dual curing is the methodology for obtaining thermosets by combining two different and compatible polymerization reactions, taking place sequentially or simultaneously. Sequential dual curing processing enables the preparation of handleable materials after a first stage of curing which, upon application of a second stimulus, further crosslink to achieve the ultimate properties.
Controlled curing sequences can be achieved by means of using latent catalysts that are activated upon irradiation or temperature, or else by thermal control of the reaction kinetics. Many possible combinations of reactions are possible, especially those including click-type polymerization reactions, which are especially suited because of their efficiency, selectivity and orthogonality. Careful choice of the polymerization reactions, monomer composition and structure makes it possible to obtain intermediate materials with well-defined rheological, thermal and mechanical properties, ranging from those of viscoelastic liquids to lightly crosslinked rubbers or glassy crosslinked networks. After the second curing stage, the materials complete the crosslinking process and reach the ultimate properties required for the end-use of the material. This unique combination of features represent significant advantages in terms of processing flexibility, facilitating manufacturing and assembly in comparison with curing systems based on a single polymerization reaction, and opens new application perspectives in diverse areas such as photo-patterning, holography, shape-memory devices or micro-fluidics.
Stellar dynamics is an interdisciplinary field where mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy overlap. The approaches to studying a stellar system include dealing with the collisionless Boltzmann equation, the Chandrasekhar equations, and stellar hydrodynamic equations, which are comparable to the equations of motion of a compressible viscous fluid. Their equivalence gives rise to the closure problem, connected with the higher-order moments of the stellar velocity distribution, which is explained and solved for maximum entropy distributions and for any velocity distribution function, depending on a polynomial function in the velocity variables. On the other hand, the Milky Way kinematics in the solar neighbourhood needs to be described as a mixture distribution accounting for the stellar populations composing the Galactic components. As such, the book offers a statistical study, according to the moments and cumulants of a population mixture, and a dynamical approach, according to a superposition of Chandrasekhar stellar systems, connected with the potential function and the symmetries of the model.
This work reports research on mapping, path planning, and autonomous exploration. These are classical problems in robotics, typically studied independently, and here we link such problems by framing them within a common SLAM approach, adopting Pose SLAM as the basic state estimation machinery. The main contribution of this work is an approach that allows a mobile robot to plan a path using the map it builds with Pose SLAM and to select the appropriate actions to autonomously construct this map.
Pose SLAM is the variant of SLAM where only the robot trajectory is estimated and where landmarks are only used to produce relative constraints between robot poses. In Pose SLAM, observations come in the form of relative-motion mea- surements between robot poses. With regards to extending the original Pose SLAM formulation, this work studies the computation of such measurements when they are obtained with stereo cameras and develops the appropriate noise propagation models for such case. Furthermore, the initial formulation of Pose SLAM assumes poses in SE(2) and in this work we extend this formulation to SE(3), parameterizing rotations either with Euler angles and quaternions. We also introduce a loop closure test that exploits the information from the filter using an independent measure of information content between poses. In the application domain, we present a tech- nique to process the 3D volumetric maps obtained with this SLAM methodology, but with laser range scanning as the sensor modality, to derive traversability maps that were useful for the navigation of a heterogeneous fleet of mobile robots in the context of the EU project URUS.
Aside from these extensions to Pose SLAM, the core contribution of the work is an approach for path planning that exploits the modeled uncertainties in Pose SLAM to search for the path in the pose graph with the lowest accumulated robot pose uncertainty, i.e., the path that allows the robot to navigate to a given goal with the least probability of becoming lost. An added advantage of the proposed path planning approach is that since Pose SLAM is agnostic with respect to the sensor modalities used, it can be used in different environments and with different robots, and since the original pose graph may come from a previous mapping session, the paths stored in the map already satisfy constraints not easy modeled inthe robot controller, such as the existence of restricted regions, or the right of way along paths. The proposed path planning methodology has been extensively tested both in simulation and with a real outdoor robot.
Our path planning approach is adequate for scenarios where a robot is initially guided during map construction, but autonomous during execution. For other scenarios in which more autonomy is required, the robot should be able to explore the environment without any supervision. The second core contribution of this work is an autonomous exploration method that complements the aforementioned path planning strategy. The method selects the appropriate actions to drive the robot so as to maximize coverage and at the same time minimize localization and map uncertainties. An occupancy grid is maintained for the sole purpose of guaranteeing coverage. A significant advantage of the method is that since the grid is only computed to hypothesize entropy reduction of candidate map posteriors, it can be computed at a very coarse resolution since it is not used to maintain neither the robot localization estimate, nor the structure of the environment. Our technique evaluates two types of actions: exploratory actions and place revisiting actions. Action decisions are made based on entropy reduction estimates. By maintaining a Pose SLAM estimate at run time, the technique allows to replan trajectories online should significant change in the Pose SLAM estimate be detected.
This volume addresses challenges and solutions in transport and mobility of people and goods with respect to environment, safety, security and socio–economics issues, exploring advanced computational research work and the latest innovations in transport. This book brings together lectures presented at the ECCOMAS Thematic CM3 Conference on Transport held in Jyväskylä, Finland, 25-27 May 2015. It is divided into three parts, I: Reviews and Perspective, II: Computational Methods and Models and III: Translational Research. Each of these parts consists of contributions that present solutions to many transport challenges in this complex, rapidly changing subject. The work contains the latest achievements of European research and technological developments needed for the next decade through computational results of scientific and technical experts who have made essential contributions in transport efficiency in Europe. The material presented here is the state of the art in Transport Modeling, Simulation and Optimization in the fields of Aeronautics, Automotive, Logistics, Maritime and Rails. Furthermore, this volume also answers the question how to apply Computational Research in Transport in order to provide innovative solutions to Green Transportation challenges of identified in the ambitious Horizon 2020 program. This book is intended for students, researchers, engineers and practitioners that are computationally involved in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in the areas of optimal use of road, traffic and travel data, traffic and freight management ITS services, road safety and security, sea traffic management, etc.
La comunicació ha arribat a totes les disciplines i temàtiques i l’Arquitectura no n’és una excepció. El nombre d’edificis, espais i monuments que es converteixen en marques arquitectòniques ha augmentat en els darrers temps i són presents en ciutats diverses d’arreu del món. Les marques potencien la imatge d’empreses, ciutats i països, que es posicionen com a destins turístics. Talment, els arquitectes que les projecten esdevenen arquitectes mediàtics o senzillament, arquitectes-marca. Amb una arquitectura singular i diferenciadora són productes de consum dins d’aquesta societat que busca nous reptes tant urbanístics com socials. No importa la seva funció, tant poden ser museus, biblioteques, monuments commemoratius o pavellons, que primer de tot són símbols arquitectònics i que els visitants o receptors els converteixen en marques admirades. El següent llibre ens endinsa en l’anàlisi d’algunes marques per entendre i aprofundir en aquest fenomen, que s’albira creixent al llarg del segle XXI
Fuzzy subgroups and T-vague groups are interesting fuzzy algebraic structures that have been widely studied. While fuzzy subgroups fuzzify the concept of crisp subgroup, T-vague groups can be identified with quotient groups of a group by a normal fuzzy subgroup and there is a close relation between both structures and T-indistinguishability operators (fuzzy equivalence relations).
In this paper the functions that aggregate fuzzy subgroups and T-vague groups will be studied. The functions aggregating T-indistinguishability operators have been characterized  and the main result of this paper is that the functions aggregating T-indistinguishability operators coincide with the ones that aggregate fuzzy subgroups and T-vague groups. In particular, quasi-arithmetic means and some OWA operators aggregate them if the t-norm is continuous Archimedean.
Light plays a key role in the regulation of different physiological processes, through several visual and non-visual retinal phototransduction channels whose basic features are being unveiled by recent research. The growing body of evidence on the significance of these effects has sparked a renewed interest in the determination of the light field at the entrance pupil of the eye in indoor spaces. Since photic interactions are strongly wavelength-dependent, a significant effort is being devoted to assess the relative merits of the spectra of the different types of light sources available for use at home and in the workplace. The spectral content of the light reaching the observer eyes in indoor spaces, however, does not depend exclusively on the sources: it is partially modulated by the spectral reflectance of the walls and surrounding surfaces, through the multiple reflections of the light beams along all possible paths from the source to the observer. This modulation can modify significantly the non-visual photic inputs that would be produced by the lamps alone, and opens the way for controlling-to a certain extent-the subject's exposure to different regions of the optical spectrum. In this work we evaluate the expected magnitude of this effect and we show that, for factorizable sources, the spectral modulation can be conveniently described in terms of a set of effective filter-like functions that provide useful insights for lighting design and light pollution assessment. The radiance field also provides a suitable bridge between indoor and outdoor light pollution studies.
We present a conceptual and numerical approach to model processes in the Earth's interior that involve multiple phases that simultaneously interact thermally, mechanically and chemically. The approach is truly multiphase in the sense that each dynamic phase is explicitly modelled with an individual set of mass, momentum, energy and chemical mass balance equations coupled via interfacial interaction terms. It is also truly multi-component in the sense that the compositions of the system and its constituent thermodynamic phases are expressed by a full set of fundamental chemical components (e.g. SiO$_2$, Al$_2$O$_3$, MgO, etc) rather than proxies. In contrast to previous approaches these chemical components evolve, react with, and partition into, different phases with different physical properties according to an internally-consistent thermodynamic model. This enables a thermodynamically-consistent coupling of the governing set of balance equations. Interfacial processes such as surface tensions and/or surface energy contributions to the dynamics and energetics of the system are also taken into account. The model presented here describes the evolution of systems governed by Multi-Phase Multi-Component Reactive Transport (MPMCRT) based on Ensemble Averaging and Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics principles. This novel approach provides a flexible platform to study the dynamics and non-linear feedbacks occurring within various natural systems at different scales. This notably includes major-and trace-element transport, diffusion-controlled trace-element re-equilibration or rheological changes associated with melt generation and migration in the Earth's mantle.
This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in
Geophysical journal international following peer review. The version of record Oliveira, B.,
Afonso, J., Zlotnik, S., Diez, P. Numerical modelling of multi-phase multi-component reactive transport in the Earth's interior. "Geophysical journal international", 1 Gener 2018, vol. 212, núm. 1, p. 345-388 is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx399.
Khan, A.; Jagdale, P.; Rovere, M.; Nogués, M.; Rosso, C.; Tagliaferro, A. Composites part B: engineering Vol. 132, p. 87-96 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.08.016 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
Carbon nano materials (CNMs) from waste polyethylene bags were synthesized in two different morphologies namely carbon nano beads (P1) and a mix of carbon nano tubes and carbon nano beads (P2) using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Morphology of the CNMs were studied through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and the purity through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. Epoxy composites were produced using these CNMs as filler in 1% and 3% by weight. Mechanical properties and tribological properties were compared with the composites of commercial Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT). It is observed that the in house generated CNMs composites show overall better mechanical and tribology properties compared to the blank epoxy and the commercial MWCNTs based composites. Morphology of the composites was analysed through FESEM to study the interaction of the filler with the matrix that lead to improved performances.
Torres, A.; Oliete, S.; Magrinya, F.; Gauthier, J. Transportation research. Part A, Policy and practice Vol. 107, p. 216-228 DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2017.11.016 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
Road conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa are typically poor, and only a subset of the newly constructed or rehabilitated roads reach their design life. Truck overloading generally causes this rapid deterioration. In Africa, there are few success stories on the imposition of axle-load limits. This study examines the existing regulations on the Douala-N'Djamena international road, which is the main transport corridor in Central Africa and the backbone for internal transport in Cameroon. It benefits from the detailed existing weighing data recorded since 1998 in the corridor's 10 weighing stations. This vast amount of traffic data, together with available information on road structure and deterioration over time, has been used to conduct an accurate calculation of load equivalency factors. The HDM 4 model has been applied to three scenarios between 2000 and 2015: (1) no axle-load control, (2) the real situation and (3) no overloading tolerance. Results show that axle-load regulations have been reasonably well applied in Cameroon and have contributed to maintaining the corridor in fair condition. In spite of the fact that significant traffic increases are presently counterbalancing the damage avoided by axle-load limits, benefits provided by axle-load control have been substantial: in the period of 2000–2015, every € invested or spent on axle-load control has generated more than €20 of savings in road user costs and in road maintenance and rehabilitation expenditure, which represents, in absolute terms, more than €500 million.
Arias , D.M.; Sole, M.; Marianna Garfi'; Ferrer, I.; Garcia, J.; Uggetti, E. Bioresource technology Vol. 247, p. 513-519 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.123 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
In this study, microalgae digestate and secondary effluent were used to grow microalgae in a tertiary wastewater treatment, and then, the biomass was co-digested for biogas generation. A 30 L closed-photobioreactor was used for microalgae cultivation. The biomass, mainly composed by Scenedesmus sp., reached and maintained a concentration of 1.1 gTSS/L during 30 days. A complete removal of N-NH4 + and P-PO4 3- and high nitrates and organic matter removals were achieved (58% N-NO3 - and 70% COD) with 8 d of HRT. The potential biogas production of the cultivated microalgae was determined in batch tests. To improve their biodegradability, a novel method combining their co-digestion with activated sludge after a simultaneous autohydrolysis co-pretreatment was evaluated. After the co-pretreatment, the methane yield increased by 130%. Thus, integrating microalgae tertiary treatment into activated sludge systems is a promising and feasible solution to recover energy and nutrients from waste, improving wastewater treatment plants sustainability.
Alfarah, B.; Murcia-Delso, J.; Lopez Almansa, F.; Oller, S. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics Vol. 47, num. 2, p. 460-478 DOI: 10.1002/eqe.2974 Fecha de publicación: 2018 Artículo de revista
A través de un minucioso proceso de investigación y diseño, cada proyecto de Harquitectes busca la coherencia entre imagen y funcionamiento energético.
Through a detailed process of research and design, each project by Harquitectes seeks to achieve coherence between image and energy performance.
Raboshchuk, G.; Nadeu, C.; Vidiella, S.; Ros, O.; Muñoz, B.; Riverola , A. Biomedical signal processing and control Vol. 39, p. 390-395 DOI: 10.1016/j.bspc.2017.07.024 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
The sounds occurring in the noisy acoustical environment of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are thought to affect the growth and neurodevelopment of preterm infants. Automatic sound detection in a NICU is a novel and challenging problem, and it is an essential step in the investigation of how preterm infants react to auditory stimuli of the NICU environment. In this paper, we present our work on an automatic system for detection of vocalization sounds, which are extensively present in NICUs. The proposed system reduces the presence of irrelevant sounds prior to detection. Several pre-processing techniques are compared, which are based on either spectral subtraction or non-negative matrix factorization, or a combination of both. The vocalization sounds are detected from the enhanced audio signal using either generative or discriminative classification models. An audio database acquired in a real-world NICU environment is used to assess the performance of the detection system in terms of frame-level missing and false alarm rates. The inclusion of the enhancement pre-processing step leads to up to 17.54% relative improvement over the baseline.
Javadian, H.; Ghasemi, M.; Ruiz, M.; Sastre, A.; Hosseini Asl, S.; Masomi, M. Ultrasonics sonochemistry Vol. 40, p. 4-68 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.08.022 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
In this study, NiO/Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite (NiO/ACNC) was prepared by adding dropwise NaOH solution (2 mol/L) to raise the suspension pH to around 9 at room temperature under ultrasonic irradiation (200 W) as an efficient method and characterized by FE-SEM, FTIR and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The effect of different parameters such as contact time (0–120 min), initial metal ion concentration (25–200 mg/L), temperature (298, 318 and 333 K), amount of adsorbent (0.002–0.007 g) and the solution's initial pH (1–7) on the adsorption of Pb (II) was investigated in batch-scale experiments. The equilibrium data were well fitted by Langmuir model type 1 (R2 > 0.99). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qm) of NiO/ACNC was 1428.57 mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters (¿G°, ¿H° and ¿S°) were also calculated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb (II) onto NiO/ACNC was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. In addition, a fuzzy-logic-based model including multiple inputs and one output was developed to predict the removal efficiency of Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Four input variables including pH, contact time (min), dosage (g) and initial concentration of Pb (II) were fuzzified using an artificial intelligence-based approach. The fuzzy subsets consisted of triangular membership functions with eight levels and a total of 26 rules in the IF-THEN approach which was implemented on a Mamdani-type of fuzzy inference system. Fuzzy data exhibited small deviation with satisfactory coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.98) that clearly proved very good performance of fuzzy-logic-based model in prediction of removal efficiency of Pb (II). It was confirmed that NiO/ACNC had a great potential as a novel adsorbent to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solution.
Gomez, J.; Sanchez-Soto, M.; Maspoch, M. Composites. Part A, applied science and manufacturing Vol. 104, p. 1-13 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.10.014 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
The aim of the present work is to analyze the morphology, mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of solid and foamed plates made of glass fiber-reinforced PP. The morphology exhibited a solid skin/foamed core structure, dependent on the foaming ratio. Simulation of the microcellular injection molding process with Moldex 3DR software provided a good approach to the experimental results. The flexural properties and impact resistance showed lower values as the apparent density decreased, but constant specific properties. The fracture characterization was carried out by determining the Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) at low strain rate, as well as the fracture toughness (KIc) at impact loading. Foamed specimens presented higher values of CTOD than the solid ones and higher as the foaming ratio increases, due to cells acting as crack arrestors by blunting the crack tip. However, the fracture toughness KIc decreased with decreasing the apparent density. Anisotropy due to fiber orientation was also observed. Fibers were aligned in the filling direction in the surface layers, while they were oriented in the transverse direction in the core. According to the amount of fibers oriented in one direction or another, different properties were obtained
Konuray, A.; Ruiz, A.; Morancho, J.; Salla, J.; Fernandez-Francos, X.; Serra, À.; Ramis, X. European polymer journal Vol. 98, p. 39-46 DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2017.11.003 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
A new family of poly(keto ester)-poly(methacrylate) thermosets based on off-stoichiometric acetoacetate-acrylate/methacrylate formulations has been prepared and characterized. The first stage of curing is a self-limiting click Michael addition between acetoacetate and acrylate groups at room temperature and the second stage is a methacrylate radical photopolymerization. An analysis of the reaction kinetics confirmed that acetoacetate reacts selectively with acrylates, leaving methacrylates completely unreacted after the first curing stage. It was found that acrylate-rich mixtures achieve complete conversion at the end of both curing stages. In methacrylate-rich formulations the dilution effect of this monomer leads to a slow curing rate and a certain amount of unreacted acrylates in the first curing stage, which react completely after irradiation in the second curing stage. The prepared materials are gelled after acetoacetate/acrylate Michael addition and show a wide range of properties at both curing stages that can be tailored by changing the relative contribution of the Michael and radical vinyl homopolymerization reactions. The latency of the formulations at the beginning of the second stage can be regulated as desired by irradiation.
Sgroi, M.; Pelissari, C.; Roccaro, P.; Sezerino, P.; Garcia, J.; Vagliasindi, F.; Avila, C. Chemical engineering journal Vol. 332, p. 619-627 DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2017.09.122 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
The elimination of organic carbon, nitrogen, five emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) and fluorescence signature was evaluated in two treatment lines comprising different constructed wetland (CW) configurations: (i) partially saturated vertical subsurface flow (SVF) wetland (treatment line 1) and (ii) unsaturated vertical subsurface flow (UVF), horizontal subsurface flow (HF) and free water surface (FWS) wetlands in series (treatment line 2). Results showed important differences between the different CW configurations. The highest removal of BOD5 (81%), COD (67%), TOC (72%) and fluorescing organic matter were observed in the UVF wetland, whereas the HF and FWS wetlands were the most efficient units for total nitrogen removal (60 and 69%, respectively). The SVF wetland showed a greater performance in the reduction of total nitrogen than the UVF bed (52 vs. 35%). In addition, the SVF wetland exhibited a higher removal of the EOCs caffeine (95 vs. 90%), trimethoprim (99 vs. 87%) and sulfamethoxazole (64 vs. 4%), as opposed to DEET (34 vs. 63%), whose removal was superior in the UVF unit. Sucralose was negligibly removed in all the CWs. PARAFAC analysis of fluorescence measurements revealed that the proteinaceous tryptophan-like fluorescent component was the most highly removed one in all the investigated CWs (>28%) and, particularly, in the UVF wetland (66%), whereas humic and fulvic-like components resulted recalcitrant to decomposition. Increases of fluorescence intensities were often observed for fulvic-like substances in CWs operating with saturation of the bed, and these were particularly relevant in the SVF unit. Finally, important correlations (r > 0.7) between the tryptophan-like fluorescent component and the wastewater quality parameters COD and BOD5 suggest fluorescence spectroscopy as an useful monitoring tool for water treatment efficiency in CW systems.
The dynamics of a DC-AC self-oscillating LC resonant inverter with a zero current switching strategy is considered in this paper. A model that includes both the series and the parallel topologies and accounts for parasitic resistances in the energy storage components is used. It is found that only two reduced parameters are needed to unfold the bifurcation set of this extended system: one is related to the quality factor of the LC resonant tank, and the other accounts for the balance between serial and parallel losses. Through a rigorous mathematical study, a complete description of the bifurcation set is obtained and the parameter regions where the inverter can work properly is emphasized.
Mamo, J.; Garcia, M.; Stefani, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Barceló, D.; Monclus, H.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.; Comas, J. Chemical engineering journal Vol. 331, p. 450-461 DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2017.08.050 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
The removal of pharmaceuticals (PhACs) present in urban wastewater by membrane bioreactors (MBRs) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) membranes has been frequently addressed in the literature. However, data regarding the removal of their main human metabolites and transformation products (TPs) is still scarce. In this study, the presence of 13 PhACs and 20 of their metabolites and TPs was monitored during 2 consecutive years in the different treatment steps of urban raw wastewater (sewer, primary treatment, MBR and RO/NF). Rejection of the selected contaminants when using low pressure NF membranes (NF-90) or RO membranes (ESPA 2) after the MBR step was also investigated. The analgesic acetaminophen, which was found at the highest concentrations in the sewer and influent samples (18–74 µg L-1) over the two experimental periods, was fully eliminated during MBR treatment. Those PhACs that were only partially removed after the MBR, were almost completely removed (>99%) by the RO membrane working under different process conditions. At a similar average permeate fluxes (18 L m-2 h-1), the NF membrane showed high removal efficiencies (>90%) for all of the PhACs and their metabolites, though lower than those achieved by the RO membrane. When the flux of the NF90 membrane was increased to 30 L m-2 h-1 (while still operating at a feed pressure lower than the RO membrane at 18 L m-2 h-1) the performance of the membrane increased, achieving 98% rejection of PhACs.
Rambo, D.; Blanco, A.; de Figueiredo, A.D.; dos Santos , E.; Toledo Filho, R.; Martins Gomes , O. Construction & building materials Vol. 158, p. 443-453 DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.10.046 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the applicability of the Barcelona (BCN) test to evaluate the mechanical properties of a macro-synthetic fiber reinforced concrete (MSFRC) submitted to high temperature environments (up to 600 °C). BCN tests demonstrated that the MSFRC gradually loses tensile strength an energy consumption density with increasing temperature. Temperatures of 400 °C and 570 °C shown to be critical to the MSFRC mechanical performance. The residual mechanical behavior of the macro-synthetic fibers was not affected by the temperature up to 100 °C. For higher temperatures, the reinforcement showed that may lose part of its crystallinity compromising the MSFRC post-cracking performance. The constitutive model used to determine the stress-strain curves of the MSFRC was capable to reproduce the composite behavior after the event of a fire.
Urqueta, H.; Jódar, J.; Herrera Lameli, Ch.; Wilke, H.; Medina, A.; Urrutia, J.; Custodio, E.; Rodríguez, J. Science of the total environment Vol. 612, p. 1234-1248 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.305 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
Land surface temperature (LST) seems to be related to the temperature of shallow aquifers and the unsaturated zone thickness (¿ Zuz). That relationship is valid when the study area fulfils certain characteristics: a) there should be no downward moisture fluxes in an unsaturated zone, b) the soil composition in terms of both, the different horizon materials and their corresponding thermal and hydraulic properties, must be as homogeneous and isotropic as possible, c) flat and regular topography, and d) steady state groundwater temperature with a spatially homogeneous temperature distribution. A night time Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image and temperature field measurements are used to test the validity of the relationship between LST and ¿ Zuz at the Pampa del Tamarugal, which is located in the Atacama Desert (Chile) and meets the above required conditions. The results indicate that there is a relation between the land surface temperature and the unsaturated zone thickness in the study area. Moreover, the field measurements of soil temperature indicate that shallow aquifers dampen both the daily and the seasonal amplitude of the temperature oscillation generated by the local climate conditions. Despite empirically observing the relationship between the LST and ¿ Zuz in the study zone, such a relationship cannot be applied to directly estimate ¿ Zuz using temperatures from nighttime thermal satellite images. To this end, it is necessary to consider the soil thermal properties, the soil surface roughness and the unseen water and moisture fluxes (e.g., capillarity and evaporation) that typically occur in the subsurface.
Portell, J.; Iudica, R.; Garcia-berro, E.; Villafranca, A.; Artiegues, G. International journal of remote sensing Vol. 39, p. 2022-2042 DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2017.1399478 Fecha de publicación: 2018 Artículo de revista
Fully Adaptive Prediction Error Coder (FAPEC) is a data compressor which offers good compression ratios even when data is severely affected by noise and outliers. This, combined with its high computing performance, makes it suitable for space applications. It is based on a variety of pre-processing stages followed by an outlier-resilient adaptive entropy coder. Sample sizes of 8–24 bits are supported. Pre-processing stages range from simple delta algorithms (with interleaving, lossy, and filtering options) to more complex discrete wavelet transform and Hierarchical Pixel Averaging image algorithms (with or without losses, for single or multiple bands). A quick prediction-based lossless multi-band algorithm is also available, as well as lightweight dictionary-like pattern recognition. Thus, one can have functionalities equivalent to those of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) 121.0, 122.x, and 123.x in a single system, as well as some features not supported yet by any recommendation. Here, we describe the main features of FAPEC and the results obtained on a variety of data, comparing compression ratios and speeds against CCSDS standards.
With the rapid development of very large, diverse, complex, and distributed datasets generated from internet transactions, emails, videos, business information systems, manufacturing industry, sensors and internet of things etc., cloud and big data computation have emerged as a cornerstone of modern applications. Indeed, on the one hand, cloud and big data applications are becoming a main driver for economic growth. On the other hand, cloud and big data techniques may threaten people and enterprises’ privacy and security due to ever increasing exposure of their data to massive access. In this paper, aiming at providing secure cloud data sharing services in cloud storage, we propose a scalable and controllable cloud data sharing framework for cloud users (called: Scanf). To this end, we introduce a new cryptographic primitive, namely, PRE+, which can be seen as the dual of traditional proxy re-encryption (PRE) primitive. All the traditional PRE schemes until now require the delegator (or the delegator and the delegatee cooperatively) to generate the re-encryption keys. We observe that this is not the only way to generate the re-encryption keys, the encrypter also has the ability to generate re-encryption keys. Based on this observation, we construct a new PRE+ scheme, which is almost the same as the traditional PRE scheme except the re-encryption keys generated by the encrypter. Compared with PRE, our PRE+ scheme can easily achieve the non-transferable property and message-level based fine-grained delegation. Thus our Scanf framework based on PRE+ can also achieve these two properties, which is very important for users of cloud storage sharing service. We also roughly evaluate our PRE+ scheme’s performance and the results show that our scheme is efficient and practica for cloud data storage applications.
Sechopoulos, I.; Rogers, D.; Bazalova-Carter, M.; Bolch, W.; Heath, E.; McNitt-Gray, M.; Sempau, J.; Williamson, J. Medical physics Vol. 45, num. 1, p. e-1-e-5 DOI: 10.1002/mp.12702 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
Boano, F.; Rizzo, A.; Samsó, R.; Garcia, J.; Revelli, R.; Ridolfi, L. Science of the total environment Vol. 612, p. 1480-1487 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.265 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
The average organic and hydraulic loads that Constructed Wetlands (CWs) receive are key parameters for their adequate long-term functioning. However, over their lifespan they will inevitably be subject to either episodic or sustained overloadings. Despite that the consequences of sustained overloading are well known (e.g., clogging), the threshold of overloads that these systems can tolerate is difficult to determine. Moreover, the mechanisms that might sustain the buffering capacity (i.e., the reduction of peaks in nutrient load) during overloads are not well understood. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of sudden but sustained organic and hydraulic overloads on the general functioning of CWs. To that end, the mathematical model BIO_PORE was used to simulate five different scenarios, based on the features and operation conditions of a pilot CW system: a control simulation representing the average loads; 2 simulations representing +10% and +30% sustained organic overloads; one simulation representing a sustained +30% hydraulic overload; and one simulation with sustained organic and hydraulic overloads of +15% each. Different model outputs (e.g., total bacterial biomass and its spatial distribution, effluent concentrations) were compared among different simulations to evaluate the effects of such operation changes. Results reveal that overloads determine a temporary decrease in removal efficiency before microbial biomass adapts to the new conditions and COD removal efficiency is recovered. Increasing organic overloads cause stronger temporary decreases in COD removal efficiency compared to increasing hydraulic loads. The pace at which clogging develops increases by 10% for each 10% increase on the organic load.
Custodio, E.; Jódar, J.; Herrera Lameli, Ch.; Custodio-Ayala, J.; Medina, A. Journal of hydrology Vol. 556, p. 427-437 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.11.035 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01 Artículo de revista
The concentration of atmospheric tracers in groundwater samples collected from springs and deep wells is, in most cases, the result of a mixture of waters with a wide range of residence times in the ground. Such is the case of an unconfined aquifer recharged over all its surface area. Concentrations greatly differ from the homogeneous residence time case. Data interpretation relies on knowledge of the groundwater flow pattern. To study relatively large systems, the conservative ion chloride and the decaying radiocarbon (14C) are considered. Radiocarbon (14C) activity in groundwater, after correction to discount the non-biogenic contribution, is often taken as an indication of water age, while chloride can be used to quantify recharge. In both cases, the observed tracer content in groundwater is an average value over a wide range which is related to water renewal time in the ground. This is shown considering an unconfined aquifer recharged all over its area under arid conditions, in which a period of greater recharge happened some millennia ago. The mathematical solution is given. As the solution cannot be made general, to show and discuss the changes in water reserve and in chloride and radiocarbon concentration (apparent ages), two scenarios are worked out, which are loosely related to current conditions in Northern Chile. It is shown that tracer concentration and the estimated water age are not directly related to the time since recharge took place. The existence of a previous wetter-than-present period has an important and lasting effect on current aquifer water reserves and chloride concentration, although the effect on radiocarbon activity is less pronounced. Chloride concentrations are smaller than in current recharge and apparent 14C ages do not coincide with the timing, duration and characteristics of the wet period, except in the case in which recharge before and after the wet period is negligible and dead aquifer reserves are non-significant. The use of chloride concentration in springs as a proxy of chloride concentration in recharge to estimate recharge from atmospheric deposition leads to recharge value larger than the real one and it approaches the wet period recharge. Drawing inferences about radiocarbon data and recharge by the chloride balance method has rarely been taken into account before. It is important to consider the variable aquifer groundwater reserve. Current recharge estimation can be improved by careful selection of groundwater samples, supported by tritium and radiocarbon measurements.
The discovery of a formal process model from event logs describing real process executions is a challenging problem that has been studied from several angles. Most of the contributions consider the extraction of a model as a one-class supervised learning problem where only a set of process instances is available. Moreover, the majority of techniques cannot generate complex models, a crucial feature in some areas like manufacturing. In this paper we present a fresh look at process discovery where undesired process behaviors can also be taken into account. This feature may be crucial for deriving process models which are less complex, fitting and precise, but also good on generalizing the right behavior underlying an event log. The technique is based on the theory of convex polyhedra and satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) and can be combined with other process discovery approach as a post processing step to further simplify complex models. We show in detail how to apply the proposed technique in combination with a recent method that uses numerical abstract domains. Experiments performed in a new prototype implementation show the effectiveness of the technique and the ability to be combined with other discovery techniques.
Matta, F.; Martelli, S.; Caon, T.; Velasco J.I.; Cardoso, R.; Bilck, A.; Innocentini, L. LWT-food science and technology Vol. 87, p. 293-300 DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.056 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
In this study, edible films were prepared with different wheat gluten (GLU) and gelatin (GEL) ratios by the solvent casting technique using glycerol (GLY) or sorbitol (SOR) as plasticizers. Fatty acids (caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic or palmitic) were also added to a previously selected GLU/GEL/sorbitol film, and the effect of GLU:GEL proportion and type of fatty acid on the film properties were tested. Films plasticized with GLY presented a more significant reduction in the elongation at break (EB). In contrast, films plasticized with SOR did not show a significant difference in the EB. The film's water vapor permeability (WVP) and acid solubility increased with increasing proportions of GEL while the water solubility was decreased. On the other hand, the elongation at break of the films decreased with increasing GEL content, which may be associated with its more rigid structure. The addition of fatty acids resulted in lower WVP and the plasticizing effect was dependent on the degree of interaction with the proteins of the film (identified by thermal analysis). The GLU:GEL proportion and the type of fatty acid affect the film properties (mechanical, solubility, opacity, water vapor barrier), allowing the development of new materials with different and useful functional properties according to the desired application
Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) is a key technology to cope with the bandwidth limitations of single mode fibers. Multi-Core Fibers (MCFs) are considered as a promising candidate technology to implement SDM, due to their low inter-core crosstalk (ICXT), experimentally proven in laboratory prototypes. Among the different channel allocation options making use of the newly enabled space dimension, the so-called spatial super-channel (Spa-SCh) is the most likely solution to be implemented, given the inherent cost reduction of the joint-switching operation (i.e., jointly switching a spectrum portion in all MCF cores at once). This work targets the cost-effective Spa-SCh allocation over MCF-enabled Flex-Grid optical core networks. To this goal, state-of-the-art 22-core MCFs are assumed, although the proposed solutions are applicable to any MCF type. In particular, we propose and evaluate a partial-core assignment as a cost-effective strategy to improve spectrum utilization and save Capital Expenditure (CapEx) costs by minimizing the number of optical transceivers used per Spa-SCh. Numerical results reveal that reductions up to 44% and 33% in the number of active transceivers in the network can be obtained in national- and continental-wide backbone networks, respectively, without affecting the network Grade-of-Service (GoS), measured in terms of Bandwidth Blocking Probability (BBP). To evaluate the impact of the ICXT, we also compare the performance of the MCF scenarios under study against equivalent Multi-Fiber (MF) ones. From the obtained results, ICXT in MCF scenarios requires the utilization of less efficient modulation formats, which reduces the admissible offered network load by up to 17% for a 1% BBP target. Furthermore, this lower spectral efficiency also demands an increase of the symbol rate per sub-channel up to a 26%, a key indicator of the modulator electronic complexity.
Nurdagül, A.; Odzak, A.; Patel, V.; Quoos, L.; Somoza, A.; Topuzoglu, A. Finite fields and their applications Vol. 49, p. 1-11 DOI: 10.1016/j.ffa.2017.09.009 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
The well-known Chowla and Zassenhaus conjecture, proved by Cohen in 1990, states that if p>(d2-3d+4)2, then there is no complete mapping polynomial f in Fp[x] of degree d=2. For arbitrary finite fields Fq, a similar non-existence result was obtained recently by Isik, Topuzoglu and Winterhof in terms of the Carlitz rank of f. Cohen, Mullen and Shiue generalized the Chowla–Zassenhaus–Cohen Theorem significantly in 1995, by considering differences of permutation polynomials. More precisely, they showed that if f and f+g are both permutation polynomials of degree d=2 over Fp, with p>(d2-3d+4)2, then the degree k of g satisfies k=3d/5, unless g is constant. In this article, assuming f and f+g are permutation polynomials in Fq[x], we give lower bounds for the Carlitz rank of f in terms of q and k. Our results generalize the above mentioned result of Isik et al. We also show for a special class of permutation polynomials f of Carlitz rank n=1 that if f+xk is a permutation over Fq, with gcd¿(k+1,q-1)=1, then k=(q-n)/(n+3).
This note is devoted to the study of the time decay of the onedimensional dual-phase-lag thermoelasticity. In this theory two delay parameters tq and t¿ are proposed. It is known that the system is exponentially stable if tq < 2t¿ . We here make two new contributions to this problem. First, we prove the polynomial stability in the case that tq = 2t¿ as well the optimality of this decay rate. Second, we prove that the exponential stability remains true even if the inequality only holds in a proper sub-interval of the spatial domain, when t¿ is spatially dependent.
For each two-dimensional vector space V of commuting n×n matrices over a field F with at least 3 elements, we denote by V˜ the vector space of all (n+1)×(n+1) matrices of the form [A¿00] with A¿V. We prove the wildness of the problem of classifying Lie algebras V˜ with the bracket operation [u,v]:=uv-vu. We also prove the wildness of the problem of classifying two-dimensional vector spaces consisting of commuting linear operators on a vector space over a field.
Asef, P.; Bargallo, R.; Barzegaran, M.; lapthorn, A.; Mewes, D. Electric power systems research Vol. 154, p. 484-492 DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2017.08.041 Fecha de publicación: 2018-01-01 Artículo de revista
In this paper, the influence of gap consideration on load identification under various Halbach-array-based topologies (HABOs) is investigated while the system is on-duty. The load characteristics of a radial flux generator with closed-slots and the exterior rotor topology is discussed, where the effect of eddy-currents are observed. This comparative study deals with the consideration of the combined moment of inertia calculation that demonstrates how electromagnetic-based post processing calculations are estimated without the aid of nominal machine parameter values. The analysis was performed using a 2-D finite-element simulation of different HABOs with the gap consideration between the segments. Additionally, a comprehensive comparison with no gap is considered. Also, the dynamic analysis using an uncontrolled conventional rectifier model is used to derive effected key output parameters such as torque, output power, power factor, and line-to-line voltage. The major objective of the study is to determine corresponding load results in order to employ the most suitable and capable magnetization topology from the load perspective in the PM synchronous generator (PMSGs). Accordingly, the maximum power (MP) point was carried out to maximize the output DC power. With respect to the combined moment of inertia estimation, the load parameter estimation is verified experimentally on a surface-mounted PMSG using different magnetization topologies. Furthermore, commercial and environmental issues of the project are considered to reduce CO2 emissions as part of green power generation development.
Finding the longest common subsequence of a given set of input strings is a relevant problem arising in various practical settings. One of these problems is the so-called longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem. This NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem was introduced for the comparison of arc-annotated ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences. In this work we present an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation of the problem. As even in the context of rather small problem instances the application of a general purpose ILP solver is not viable due to the size of the model, we study alternative ways based on model reduction in order to take profit from this ILP model. First, we present a heuristic way for reducing the model, with the subsequent application of an ILP solver. Second, we propose the application of an iterative hybrid algorithm that makes use of an ILP solver for generating high quality solutions at each iteration. Experimental results concerning artificial and real problem instances show that the proposed techniques outperform an available technique from the literature.
This paper investigates how the characteristics of operational processes—systematic and project-based—affect the impact of adopting the safety management systems on different performance metrics. The proposed approach allows the development of a framework which matches safety problems and risks encompassed by organizational tasks with solutions generated by new safety knowledge linked to the adoption of the OHSAS 18001 standard. Our analysis of the effect over work accidents, as well as operational and economic performance of implementing the OHSAS 18001 in Spanish manufacturing, construction and professional services organizations during 2006–2009 shows that organizations modify existing safety practices to mitigate work accidents, and that safety learning effects widely vary across industry sectors. Organizations whose current knowledge is mostly codified and processes are highly systematic benefit more from safety knowledge and experience, whereas the effects of the OHSAS 18001 dilute in organizations whose knowledge is high in tacitness, and whose processes difficult the visibility of the consequences of work accidents. This study has important implications for managing knowledge acquisition processes. The findings offer valuable insights on how managers can develop communication and coordination actions to cope with the potential incompatibilities between safety management systems, the properties of knowledge and work environmental conditions.
Context: Using models to represent business processes provides several advantages, such as facilitating the communication between the stakeholders or being able to check the correctness of the processes before their implementation. In contrast to traditional process modeling approaches, the artifact-centric approach treats data as a key element of the process, also considering the tasks or activities that are performed in it. Objective: This paper presents a way to verify and validate the semantic correctness of an artifact-centric business process model defined using a combination of UML and OCL models - a BAUML model. Method: We achieve our goal by presenting several algorithms that encode the initial models into first-order logic, which then allows to use an existing satisfiability checking tool to determine their correctness. Results: An approach to verify and validate an artifact-centric BPM specified in BAUML, which uses a combination of UML and OCL models. To do this, we provide a method to translate all BAUML components into a set of logic formulas. The result of this translation ensures that the only changes allowed are those specified in the model, and that those changes are taking place according the order established by the model. Having obtained this logic representation, these models can be validated by any existing reasoning method able to deal with negation of derived predicates. Moreover, we show how to automatically generate the relevant tests to validate the models. We also show the feasibility of our approach by implementing a prototype tool and applying it to a running example. Conclusion: It is feasible to ensure the semantic correctness of an artifact-centric business process model in practice.
Identification and bi-manual handling of deformable objects, like textiles, is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of industrial and service robotics. Their unpredictable shape and pose makes it very difficult to identify the type of garment and locate the most relevant parts that can be used for grasping. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that first, identifies the type of garment and second, performs a search of the two grasping points that allow a robot to bring the garment to a known pose. We show that using an active search strategy it is possible to grasp a garment directly from predefined grasping points, as opposed to the usual approach based on multiple re-graspings of the lowest hanging parts. Our approach uses a hierarchy of three Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) with different levels of specialization, trained both with synthetic and real images. The results obtained in the three steps (recognition, first grasping point, second grasping point) are promising. Experiments with real robots show that most of the errors are due to unsuccessful grasps and not to the localization of the grasping points, thus a more robust grasping strategy is required.
This paper describes the design of an interleaved sliding mode control for a multiphase synchronous buck converter, which inherits the properties of sliding mode control, operates with fixed switching frequency in the steady-state, and ensures current equalization among phases. Moreover, a power management algorithm is added in order to decide the number of active phases as function of the power load demand, thus optimizing the converter efficiency. The system uses a Master-Slave structure where each phase can actuate as the Master one in such a way that the overall system reliability is improved. Experimental results in a 1.5 kW eight-phase synchronous buck converter show that interleaving operation, robust output voltage regulation, phase current equalization, switching frequency regulation, and power management are achieved.