Measurement science and technology

Vol. 25, num. 1

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/25/1/015501

Date of publication: 2014-01

Abstract:

We report the development of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based frequency response analyzer (FRA) for impedance frequency response function (FRF) measurements using periodic excitations, i.e. sine waves and multisines. The stepped sine measurement uses two dedicated hardware-built digital embedded multiplier blocks to extract the phase and quadrature components of the output signal. The multisine FRF measurements compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the input/output signals. In this paper, we describe its design, implementation and performance evaluation, performing electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements on phantoms. The stepped sine accuracy is 1.21% at 1 k Omega (1%), the precision is 35 m Omega and the total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) is -120 dB. As for the multisine impedance FRF measurements, the magnitude and phase precision are, respectively, 0.23 Omega at 48.828 kHz and 0.021 deg at 8.087 MHz when measuring a resistor 505 Omega (1%). The magnitude accuracy is 0.55% at 8.087 MHz while the phase accuracy is 0.17 deg at 6.54 MHz. In all, the stepped sine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 84 dB and 65 dB at frequencies below and above 1 MHz respectively. The SNR for the multisine FRF measurements is above 65 dB (30 kHz-10 MHz). The FRA bandwidth is 610.4 mHz-12.5 MHz and the maximum FRF measurement rate exciting with multisines starting at 30 kHz is 200 spectra s(-1). Based on its technical specifications and versatility, the FRA presented can be used in many applications, e.g. for getting insight quickly into the instantaneous impedance FRF of the time-varying impedance under test.]]>

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 23, num. 10, p. 1-14

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/23/10/105501

Date of publication: 2012-08-21

Abstract:

Measuring the impedance frequency response of systems by means of frequency sweep electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) takes time. An alternative based on broadband signals enables the user to acquire simultaneous impedance response data collection. This is directly reflected in a short measuring time compared to the frequency sweep approach. As a result of this increase in the measuring speed, the accuracy of the impedance spectrum is compromised. The aim of this paper is to study how the choice of the broadband signal can contribute to mitigate this accuracy loss. A review of the major advantages and pitfalls of four different periodic broadband excitations suitable to be used in EIS applications is presented. Their influence on the instrumentation and impedance spectrum accuracy is analyzed. Additionally, the signal processing tools to objectively evaluate the quality of the impedance spectrum are described. In view of the experimental results reported, the impedance spectrum signalto- noise ratio (SNR Z) obtained with multisine or discrete interval binary sequence signals is about 20-30 dB more accurate than maximum length binary sequence or chirp signals. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.]]>

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 23, num. 8, p. 1-15

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/23/8/085702

Date of publication: 2012-08

Abstract:

The successful application of impedance spectroscopy in daily practice requires accurate measurements for modeling complex physiological or electrochemical phenomena in a single frequency or several frequencies at different (or simultaneous) time instants. Nowadays, two approaches are possible for frequency domain impedance spectroscopy measurements: (1) using the classical technique of frequency sweep and (2) using (non-)periodic broadband signals, i.e. multisine excitations. Both techniques share the common problem of how to design the experimental conditions, e.g. the excitation power spectrum, in order to achieve accuracy of maximum impedance model parameters from the impedance data modeling process. The original contribution of this paper is the calculation and design of the D-optimal multisine excitation power spectrum for measuring impedance systems modeled as 2R-1C equivalent electrical circuits. The extension of the results presented for more complex impedance models is also discussed. The influence of the multisine power spectrum on the accuracy of the impedance model parameters is analyzed based on the Fisher information matrix. Furthermore, the optimal measuring frequency range is given based on the properties of the covariance matrix. Finally, simulations and experimental results are provided to validate the theoretical aspects presented.]]>

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 23, num. 8, p. 1-8

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/23/8/085106

Date of publication: 2012-06-28

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 22, num. 11

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/22/11/115601

Date of publication: 2011-11

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 22, num. 11, p. 1-11

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/22/11/115801

Date of publication: 2011

Abstract:

In this work, the single Op-Amp with load-in-the-loop topology as a current source is revisited. This circuit topology was already used as a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) in the 1960s but was left unused when the requirements for higher frequency arose among the applications of electrical bioimpedance (EBI). The aim of the authors is not only limited to show that with the currently available electronic devices it is perfectly viable to use this simple VCCS topology as a working current source for wideband spectroscopy applications of EBI, but also to identify the limitations and the role of each of the circuit components in the most important parameter of a current for wideband applications: the output impedance. The study includes the eventual presence of a stray capacitance and also an original enhancement, driving with current the VCCS. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements, an accurate model of the output impedance is provided, explaining the role of the main constitutive elements of the circuit in the source's output impedance. Using the topologies presented in this work and the proposed model, any electronic designer can easily implement a simple and efficient current source for wideband EBI spectroscopy applications, e.g. in this study, values above 150 kΩ at 1 MHz have been obtained, which to the knowledge of the authors are the largest values experimentally measured and reported for a current source in EBI at this frequency.]]>

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 21, num. 4, p. 1-6

DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/21/4/045702

Date of publication: 2010-03

Abstract:

A sensor based on a coplanar waveguide structure was designed to perform non-destructive tests for material characterization in which the measurement can be done only on one side of the sample. The measurements were compared with the impedance of a capacitor filled with the same material. The permittivity and insertion loss of the sensor showed valuable information about the setting process of a mortar slab during the first 28 days of the hardening process, and a good correlation between both measurements was obtained, so the proposed setup can be useful for structural surveillance and moisture detection in civil structures.]]>

Measurement science and technology

Vol. 18, num. 7, p. 1958-1962

Date of publication: 2007-07

Abstract:

Since Electric Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been widely used to determine physical properties of materials, it becomes necessary to evaluate different error contributions. In this work, it is studied the effect of the current leakage due to the lack of galvanic insulation from sample to ground, which could distort the results. In order to known the effects of ground coupling, an electric equivalent model is developed to distinguish between the contribution of the sample impedance and the stray impedance one. Model values agree with measured ones.]]>